Search results: Found 3

Listing 1 - 3 of 3
Sort by
Macrocognition: The Science and Engineering of Sociotechnical Work Systems

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454181 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-418-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The increasing complexity of work systems and changes in the nature of workplace technology over the past century have resulted in an exponential shift in the nature of work activities, from physical labor to cognitive work. Modern work systems have many characteristics that make them cognitively complex: They can be highly interactive; comprised of multiple agents and artifacts; information may be limited and distributed across space and time; task goals are frequently ill-defined, conflicting, dynamic and emergent; planning may only be possible at general levels of abstraction or require adaptive solutions; some degree of proficiency or expertise is required; the stakes are often high; and uncertainty, time-constraints and stress are seldom absent. To complicate matters further, cognition in complex work settings is typically constrained by broader professional, organizational, and institutional practice and policy. These features of cognitive work present significant challenges to scientific methodology and theory, and subsequent design of reliable interventions. Historically, philosophers and scientists have attempted to understand the mental activities experienced during cognitive work at multiple levels of analysis using divergent methods. Some have examined cognition at an associative, contextual, functional or holistic level, relying on naturalistic methods to understand the higher mental processes as they work in harmony during goal-directed behavior. Others have embraced experimental methods and favored internal over external validity, often reducing cognition to a psychology of fundamental acts, such as short-term memory access with millisecond shifts in attention. More recently, Macrocognition has evolved as a complementary paradigm. Macrocognitive researchers have studied the cognitive functions and processes associated with skilled, adaptive, collaborative, and resilient cognitive work in the context of the aforementioned complexities of psychotechnical and sociotechnical work systems. Typically, this research has been carried out using cognitive task analytic techniques that draw on both naturalistic and (quasi-)experimental methods. The primary goals of research in Macrocognition are to better understand cognitive adaptations to complexity, to increase our theoretical understanding of the organism-environment relations by studying the mapping between cognitive work and real-world demands, and to promote use-inspired research capable of improving system performance.

Science and the politics of openness

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9781526106476 Year: Pages: 352 Language: English
Publisher: Manchester University Press Grant: Leverhulme Trust funded
Subject: Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-02 11:01:45
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The phrase ‘here be monsters’ or ‘here be dragons’ is commonly believed to have been used on ancient maps to indicate unexplored territories which might hide unknown beasts. This book maps and explores places between science and politics that have been left unexplored, sometimes hiding in plain sight - in an era when increased emphasis was put on 'openness'. The book is rooted in a programme of research funded by the Leverhulme Trust entitled: ‘Making Science Public: Challenges and opportunities, which runs from 2014 to 2017. One focus of our research was to critically question the assumption that making science more open and public could solve various issues around scientific credibility, trust, and legitimacy. Chapters in this book explore the risks and benefits of this perspective with relation to transparency, responsibility, experts and faith.

Une agronomie pour le XXIe siècle

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9782759229383 9782759229390 9782759229376 Year: Pages: 304 DOI: 10.35690/978-2-7592-2938-3 Language: French
Publisher: éditions Quae
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-11 11:21:33
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The challenge for agricultural systems today is to produce whilst drastically reducing greenhouse gas emissions, in limited agricultural spaces where the biodiversity, quality of resources, soils, water, air, etc. all have to be protected. This collective work, published to mark the twentieth anniversary of the creation of the Inra Environment and Agronomy Department, takes stock of progress made in this area.

Listing 1 - 3 of 3
Sort by
Narrow your search

Publisher

Frontiers Media SA (1)

Manchester University Press (1)

éditions Quae (1)


License

CC by-nc-nd (2)

CC by (1)


Language

english (2)

french (1)


Year
From To Submit

2018 (3)