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Dynamics of Joint-Action, Social Coordination and Multi-Agent Activity

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454204 Year: Pages: 379 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-420-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Coordinating one’s behavior with the behavior of other individuals is a fundamental feature of everyday social interaction. A defining feature of such behavior is that it is dynamic, that is, it evolves over time. This is true whether one considers the linguistic, gestural and non-verbal coordination that occurs between two or more individuals engaged in a conversation or the physical movement coordination that occurs when two or more people clear a dinner table or load a dishwasher together. Such behavior is also emergent and robust to sudden changes in task context or unexpected environmental or social perturbations. Accordingly, robust social action and multi-agent coordination is synergistic, with co-acting individuals adapting to each other and the environment around them in a mutual and reciprocal manner. Research investigating the behavioral dynamics of joint-action and multi-agent coordination has steadily increased over the last several decades. Spurred by several factors, including (i) the increased accessibility of technologies for recording and extracting the time-evolution of multi-agent behavior (e.g., motion tracking, eye-tracking, EEG), (ii) the development of new nonlinear techniques for analyzing behavioral and linguistic time-series data, and (iii) a growing appreciation that social cognition, perception, and action are interdependent, embodied and embedded processes, this research has not only been directed towards measuring and identifying the stable patterns of coordinated social and multi-agent activity that emerge over time, but also how these stable pattern are activated, dissolved, transformed, and exchanged over time. Not surprisingly, researchers have begun to investigate the implications of this behavioral dynamics perspective for understanding social cognitive processes as well as clinical disorders with social deficits such as autism and schizophrenia. Attempts at modeling the dynamics of social action and multi-agent behavior using various nonlinear and complex systems methods has also increased over the last several years, with many researchers demonstrating how simple low-dimensional dynamical or computational models can be employed to capture and explain the dynamics of ongoing joint-action and multi-agent behavior. A characteristic feature of these dynamical models is that they reveal how stable social action and multi-agent coordination arises naturally from the interaction of the physical, biomechanical, neural, informational, and social cognitive properties of a joint-action task context and goal, and cannot be ascribed to any one singular processes, agent, or level of analysis. The implications of these modeling endeavors for the design of robust and adaptive human-machine systems and robotic agents has not gone unnoticed, with a growing body of work now devoted to such joint-action, (bio)-inspired human-robotic interaction initiatives.

2 Defining the Term Samhandling (Book chapter)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch2 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
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"In this chapter we will demonstrate that samhandling has a different
qualitative meaning from other similar concepts. The term “samhandling” is used
by many organizations, researchers and textbook authors without clarifying the
rationale for its use (Torgersen & Steiro, 2009). The word samhandling is built on
a distinct cultural foundation. Therefore, we think it is necessary to describe Norwegian
culture briefly, to enable the reader to understand the basis of samhandling.
The chapter presents a definition of samhandling that was originally presented by
Torgersen & Steiro (2009). Samhandling is distinguished from cooperation/teamwork
by three core attributes which we can call the identity of samhandling: focus
on complementarity, exchange and utilization of the participants’ various skills,
experiences, backgrounds and cultures, and coordination of these factors in efforts
towards a common goal in a work situation or meeting. Samhandling has a higher
relative ambition level than the corresponding processes covered by the expressions
“collaboration”, “cooperation” and “coordination”. Increased complexity and
relations between stakeholders call for a focus on complementary handling in action,
that is, samhandling. The following competencies were identified in order for
good samhandling to occur: trust, assurance, well-being, belonging, clarity, time
and tolerance."

24 Working Together in the Aftermath of an Unforeseen Event (Book chapter)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch24 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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"The frame of this chapter is how clinicians and leaders employed in psychiatric
departments in hospitals experience and cope with patients who commit
suicide while undergoing treatment. The major focus is the phenomenon which in
the Bow-tie model is called “stabilization”. To explore this phenomenon in an empirical
analysis, two concepts of samhandling are introduced, these being coordination
and cooperation. These two concepts are used in an interpretation of what eight
leaders and clinicians report on how they handle working together after a patient
during treatment in a psychiatric hospital has unexpectedly committed suicide.
The findings are that leaders and clinicians have different views on what stabilization
is. Stabilization to the leaders seems to be something they can handle by using
mandatory organizational procedures of coordination. To the clinicians (psychologists
and psychiatrists) however, stabilization is less straightforward. Professional
stabilization is, to them, more important than organizational stabilization, and it
requires another form of interaction – namely, cooperation. Cooperation is, in its
simplest and purest form, a symmetrical way of working together, based on equality
in competence and an unforced relation between the parties. For the purpose of
professional stabilization, this is the form of interaction preferred by the clinicians.
However, these findings are tentative and more research is needed to elaborate why
leaders and clinicians respond as they do after a patient suicide."

Inquisitive Semantics

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Oxford Surveys in Semantics and Pragmatics ISBN: 9780198814788 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198814788.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Subject: Philosophy --- Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-14 11:21:02
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There is an age-old tradition in linguistics and philosophy to identify the meaning of a entence with its truth-conditions. This can be explained by the fact that linguistic and philosophical investigations are usually carried out in a logical framework that was originally designed to characterize valid reasoning. Indeed, in order to determine whether an argument is valid, it suffices to know the truth-conditions of the premises and conclusion. However, argumentation is neither the sole, nor the primary function of language. One task that language more widely and ordinarily fulfils is to enable the exchange of information between conversational participants. Inquisitive semantics is a new logical framework for the analysis of this fundamental usage of language. Information exchange can be seen as a process of raising and resolving issues. Inquisitive semantics provides a new formal notion of issues, which makes it possible to model various concepts that are crucial for the analysis of linguistic information exchange in a more refined and more principled way than has been possible in previous frameworks. This book provides a detailed exposition of inquisitive semantics, and demonstrates its benefits with a range of applications in the semantic analysis of questions, coordination, modals, conditionals, and intonation.

8. Felles mentale modeller i elitelagballspill (Book chapter)

Book title: Trender for idrettspsykologisk forskning i Skandinavia

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9788202596903 9788202596903 Year: Pages: 24 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.39.ch8 Language: Norwegian
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-28 11:01:02
License: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)

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"The purpose of this inquiry is to explore team member knowledge among elite players
in team ballgames – theoretically anchored in shared mental models. Team member knowledge
is team specific and not a type of knowledge that players can transport from team to team.
Current research literature has only to a limited extent been concerned about team member
knowledge and the importance of this in team ball games. The following research questions
will therefore be addressed in the present study: How do elite players describe their knowledge
of co-players? How do players experience the knowledge development of co-players?
The inquiry follows an ideographic research design, and the empirical material consists of
interviews with four elite players in football and team handball. The analysis reveals that the
following themes elaborate team member knowledge: Strengths and weaknesses, preferences
and predictions, compensatory behavior and co-players’ value. The players’ experience of the
development of team member knowledge indicates primarily implicit learning trajectories. The findings from the present study support the idea that team member knowledge is an
important feature in handball and soccer elite teams. Coaches and players should therefore
reflect on how this knowledge should be promoted."

23 Care Coordination, Samhandling and Patient Safety (Book chapter)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 22 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch23 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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"This chapter focus on Norwegian healthcare policies and regulations for
care coordination and patient safety. The Norwegian Coordination Reform implemented
in 2012 emphasizes patient engagement, care pathways, and competence
development in municipal healthcare services. Moreover, protocols for division of
work tasks and collaboration between specialist and municipal healthcare services
are key aspects. The reform identifies fragmented health services and the lack of
coordinated care as main challenges. The authors introduce the concepts of care
coordination, continuity of care and patient handovers, and relate these to patient
safety. Results from a Norwegian observational study, identifying factors affecting
care coordination and patient safety in care transitions between hospital and municipal
care, are presented. Finally, the authors introduce relevant measures to improve
care coordination and patient safety, including the regulatory work and follow-up
of health services through nationwide audits performed by the Norwegian Board of
Health Supervision."

Neural Computation in Embodied Closed-Loop Systems for the Generation of Complex Behavior: From Biology to Technology

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456055 Year: Pages: 278 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-605-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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How can neural and morphological computations be effectively combined and realized in embodied closed-loop systems (e.g., robots) such that they can become more like living creatures in their level of performance? Understanding this will lead to new technologies and a variety of applications.To tackle this research question, here, we bring together experts from different fields (including Biology, Computational Neuroscience, Robotics, and Artificial Intelligence) to share their recent findings and ideas and to update our research community. This eBook collects 17 cutting edge research articles, covering neural and morphological computations as well as the transfer of results to real world applications, like prosthesis and orthosis control and neuromorphic hardware implementation.

The Chemistry of Imaging Probes

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455980 Year: Pages: 129 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-598-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Over the past decades, the field of molecular imaging has been rapidly growing involving multiple disciplines such as medicine, biology, chemistry, pharmacology and biomedical engineering. Any molecular imaging procedure requires an imaging probe that is an agent used to visualize, characterize and quantify biological processes in living systems. Such a probe typically consists of an agent that usually produces signal for imaging purpose, a targeting moiety, and a linker connecting the targeting moiety and the signaling agent.Many challenging problems of molecular imaging can be addressed by exploiting the great possibilities offered by modern synthetic organic and coordination chemistry and the powerful procedures provided by conjugation chemistry. Thus, chemistry plays a decisive role in the development of this cutting-edge methodology.Currently, the diagnostic imaging modalities include Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computed Tomography (CT), Ultrasound (US), Nuclear Imaging (PET, SPECT), Optical Imaging (OI) and Photoacoustic Imaging (PAI). Each of these imaging modalities has its own advantages and disadvantages, and therefore, a multimodal approach combining two techniques is often adopted to generate complementary anatomical and functional information of the disease. The basis for designing imaging probes for a given application is dictated by the chosen imaging modality, which in turn is dependent upon the concentration and localization profile (vascular, extracellular matrix, cell membrane, intracellular, near or at the cell nucleus) of the target molecule. The development of high-affinity ligands and their conjugation to the targeting vector is also one of the key steps for pursuing efficient molecular imaging probes. Other excellent reviews, text and monographs describe the principles of biomedical imaging, focusing on molecular biology or on the physics behind the techniques. This Research Topic aims to show how chemistry can offer molecular imaging the opportunity to express all its potential.

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