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Cascades of Violence

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ISBN: 9781760461898 Year: Pages: 706 DOI: 10.22459/CV.02.2018 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-10 11:02:33
License: ANU Press

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War and crime are cascade phenomena. War cascades across space and time to more war; crime to more crime; crime cascades to war; and war to crime. As a result, war and crime become complex phenomena. That does not mean we cannot understand how to prevent crime and war simultaneously. This book shows, for example, how a cascade analysis leads to an understanding of how refugee camps are nodes of both targeted attack and targeted recruitment into violence. Hence, humanitarian prevention also must target such nodes of risk. This book shows how nonviolence and nondomination can also be made to cascade, shunting cascades of violence into reverse. Complexity theory implies a conclusion that the pursuit of strategies for preventing crime and war is less important than understanding meta strategies. These are meta strategies for how to sequence and escalate many redundant prevention strategies. These themes were explored across seven South Asian societies during eight years of fieldwork.

Keywords

peacebuilding --- crime --- war --- complexity theory

Macrocognition: The Science and Engineering of Sociotechnical Work Systems

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454181 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-418-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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The increasing complexity of work systems and changes in the nature of workplace technology over the past century have resulted in an exponential shift in the nature of work activities, from physical labor to cognitive work. Modern work systems have many characteristics that make them cognitively complex: They can be highly interactive; comprised of multiple agents and artifacts; information may be limited and distributed across space and time; task goals are frequently ill-defined, conflicting, dynamic and emergent; planning may only be possible at general levels of abstraction or require adaptive solutions; some degree of proficiency or expertise is required; the stakes are often high; and uncertainty, time-constraints and stress are seldom absent. To complicate matters further, cognition in complex work settings is typically constrained by broader professional, organizational, and institutional practice and policy. These features of cognitive work present significant challenges to scientific methodology and theory, and subsequent design of reliable interventions. Historically, philosophers and scientists have attempted to understand the mental activities experienced during cognitive work at multiple levels of analysis using divergent methods. Some have examined cognition at an associative, contextual, functional or holistic level, relying on naturalistic methods to understand the higher mental processes as they work in harmony during goal-directed behavior. Others have embraced experimental methods and favored internal over external validity, often reducing cognition to a psychology of fundamental acts, such as short-term memory access with millisecond shifts in attention. More recently, Macrocognition has evolved as a complementary paradigm. Macrocognitive researchers have studied the cognitive functions and processes associated with skilled, adaptive, collaborative, and resilient cognitive work in the context of the aforementioned complexities of psychotechnical and sociotechnical work systems. Typically, this research has been carried out using cognitive task analytic techniques that draw on both naturalistic and (quasi-)experimental methods. The primary goals of research in Macrocognition are to better understand cognitive adaptations to complexity, to increase our theoretical understanding of the organism-environment relations by studying the mapping between cognitive work and real-world demands, and to promote use-inspired research capable of improving system performance.

Evaluation of Systems’ Irregularity and Complexity: Sample Entropy, Its Derivatives, and Their Applications across Scales and Disciplines

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ISBN: 9783038973324 9783038973331 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-333-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-10 11:20:37
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.[enter Summary/Description]Based on information theory, a number of entropy measures have been proposed since the 1990s to assess systems’ irregularity, such as approximate entropy, sample entropy, permutation entropy, intrinsic mode entropy, and dispersion entropy, to cite only a few. Among them, sample entropy has been used in a very large variety of disciplines for both univariate and multivariate data. However, improvements to the sample entropy algorithm are still being proposed because sample entropy is unstable for short time series, may be sensitive to parameter values, and can be too time-consuming for long data. At the same time, it is worth noting that sample entropy does not take into account the multiple temporal scales inherent in complex systems. It is maximized for completely random processes and is used only to quantify the irregularity of signals on a single scale. This is why analyses of irregularity—with sample entropy or its derivatives—at multiple time scales have been proposed to assess systems’ complexity. This Book presents contributions related to new and original research based on the use of sample entropy or its derivatives.

The Adaptive Value of Languages: Non-Linguistic Causes of Language Diversity

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456314 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-631-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The goal of this eBook is to shed light on the non-linguistic causes of language diversity, and in particular, to explore the possibility that some aspects of the structure of languages may result from an adaptation to the natural and/or human-made environment. Traditionally, language diversity has been claimed to result from random, internally-motivated changes in language structure. However, ongoing research suggests instead that different factors that are external to language can promote language change and ultimately account for aspects of language diversity, specifically features of the social and physical environments. The contributions in this eBook discuss whether some aspects of languages are an adaptation to ecological, social, or even technological niches.

Methodik eines holistischen Variantenmanagements modularer Produktfamilien - Grundlagen, Systematik und beispielhafte Anwendung der VMahead Methodik

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Book Series: Reihe Informationsmanagement im Engineering Karlsruhe / Hrsg.: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Informationsmanagement im Ingenieurwesen (IMI) ISSN: 18605990 ISBN: 9783731507758 Year: Volume: 2018,1 Pages: XVIII, 306 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000081070 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-28 18:37:01
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A prominent solution to control a company’s internal complexity is a modular product architecture. The implementation of a modular structure comes with high effort and cost. During the application phase these expenditures are compensated. However, a modular structure does not remain stable throughout its lifetime. Decisions on new modules have to be made. Therefore, a new method to support variant decisions on module, module variant and product level has been designed.

Representation in the Brain

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455966 Year: Pages: 147 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-596-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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This eBook contains ten articles on the topic of representation of abstract concepts, both simple and complex, at the neural level in the brain. Seven of the articles directly address the main competing theories of mental representation – localist and distributed. Four of these articles argue – either on a theoretical basis or with neurophysiological evidence – that abstract concepts, simple or complex, exist (have to exist) at either the single cell level or in an exclusive neural cell assembly. There are three other papers that argue for sparse distributed representation (population coding) of abstract concepts. There are two other papers that discuss neural implementation of symbolic models. The remaining paper deals with learning of motor skills from imagery versus actual execution. A summary of these papers is provided in the Editorial.

Algorithms for Scheduling Problems

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038971191 9783038971207 Year: Pages: XIV, 194 Language: Englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Computer Science --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-24 16:46:30
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This edited book presents new results in the area of algorithm development for different types of scheduling problems. In eleven chapters, algorithms for single machine problems, flow-shop and job-shop scheduling problems (including their hybrid (flexible) variants), the resource-constrained project scheduling problem, scheduling problems in complex manufacturing systems and supply chains, and workflow scheduling problems are given. The chapters address such subjects as insertion heuristics for energy-efficient scheduling, the re-scheduling of train traffic in real time, control algorithms for short-term scheduling in manufacturing systems, bi-objective optimization of tortilla production, scheduling problems with uncertain (interval) processing times, workflow scheduling for digital signal processor (DSP) clusters, and many more.

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