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Chapter 7 Cellular Control of Time, Size, and Shape in Development and Evolution (Book chapter)

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Book Series: Evolutionary Cell Biology ISBN: 9781315155968 9781498787864 Year: Pages: 48 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:44:13
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The rules by which anatomical size and shape are generated have intrigued scientists&#xD;for centuries. In 1638, Galileo suggested a mathematical relationship between proportional&#xD;changes in the shape of bones as animals increase in size, which he argued&#xD;was a functional necessity for weight bearing (1914). The formalism of Galileo,&#xD;whereby, physical forces and mathematical laws became integrated with studies&#xD;of size and shape in biology, was most conspicuously encapsulated over a hundred&#xD;years ago in the 1917 monumental tome by D’Arcy Thompson entitled, On Growth&#xD;and Form (Thompson 1917). In a breathtakingly comprehensive manner, Thompson&#xD;synthesized the observations of numerous predecessors and contemporaries, and&#xD;through countless examples built a theoretical and experimental framework for&#xD;describing changes in morphology that persists to this day (Stern and Emlen 1999;&#xD;Arthur 2006).

Stem Cells in Clinical Practice and Tissue Engineering

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ISBN: 9781789230109 9781789230116 Year: Pages: 352 DOI: 10.5772/65995 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Cytology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Stem Cells in Clinical Practice and Tissue Engineering is a concise book on applied methods of stem cell differentiation and optimization using tissue engineering methods. These methods offer immediate use in clinical regenerative medicine. The present volume will serve the purpose of applied stem cell differentiation optimization methods in clinical research projects, as well as be useful to relatively experienced stem cell scientists and clinicians who might wish to develop their stem cell clinical centers or research labs further. Chapters are arranged in the order of basic concepts of stem cell differentiation, clinical applications of pluripotent stem cells in skin, cardiac, bone, dental, obesity centers, followed by tissue engineering, new materials used, and overall evaluation with their permitted legal status.

Cancer Management and Therapy

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ISBN: 9781789232981 9781789232998 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68267 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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There are many different types of cancer. Some are very common; others are rare. Having some similar features, each cancer has its own characteristics and symptoms, which vary according to the type of cancer and where it is in the body. The treatment selected may be influenced by the patient's age, concurrent health problems, life expectancy, characteristics of the individual's cancer, the patient's goals of treatment, and the bias of the treating physician. In preparing this book, we have considered and reflected on the concept of the recent advances in cancer management and therapy as well as molecular applications in cancer therapy. The readers can find detailed information about the treatment and management of specific cancers in these book chapters.

Molecular Docking

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ISBN: 9781789233544 9781789233551 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69830 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Molecular docking has always been and will be on the forefront of developments in the eminent field of drug design and medicinal chemistry. At the early days, drug discovery was based on blackboard drawings and expert intuition. However, as times move on, the amount of available information and overall knowledge base that needs to be analyzed cannot be processed manually. This, coupled by the rapid growth in computational infrastructure and processing power, has allowed for the efficient use of molecular docking tools and algorithms to be considered in the greater field of drug discovery. In the postgenomic era, molecular docking has become the key player for the screening of hundreds of thousands of compounds against a repertoire of pharmacological targets.

Free Radicals, Antioxidants and Diseases

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ISBN: 9781789235647 9781789235654 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.70075 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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The current book entitled Free Radicals, Antioxidants, and Diseases gives an idea of detecting free radicals in vivo by newer techniques and provides insights into the roles played by various antioxidants in combating diseases caused by oxidative stress. The chapters included in this volume showcase new investigation in this field by the research groups around the world.

Neoplasm

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ISBN: 9781789237771 9781789237788 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69560 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Neoplasm refers to an abnormal tissue growth that arises as a consequence of rapid cell proliferation and continues to grow abnormally even after terminating the stimuli that had instigated the change. It lacks partial or complete functional coordination with that of the normal tissues. Neoplasms are classified depending on the degree and type of tissues involved. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process where a plethora of endogenous and exogenous factors turns out genetic and epigenetic modifications, which collectively amend some critical cellular pathways controlling the proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. The cells having aberrant modifications are transformed into malignant ones of which the clonal expansion results in the development of cancer. This book provides the reader with a comprehensive overview of various cancer types along with their molecular mechanisms of initiation and progression. It also describes the current knowledge about the state-of-the-art measures being employed in cancer diagnosis and therapeutics. Particular attention is paid to make this book equally useful for students, practitioners, and expert scientists.

Ion Channels in Health and Sickness

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ISBN: 9781789842272 9781789842289 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.72025 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Cytology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Ion channels are proteins that make pores in the membranes of excitable cells present both in the brain and the body. These cells are not only responsible for converting chemical and mechanical stimuli into the electrical signals but are also liable for monitoring vital functions. All our activities, from the blinking of our eyes to the beating of our heart and all our senses from smell to sight, touch, taste and hearing are regulated by the ion channels. This book will take us on an expedition describing the role of ion channels in congenital and acquired diseases and the challenges and limitations scientist are facing in the development of drugs targeting these membrane proteins.

Calcium and Signal Transduction

Authors: ---
Book Series: Physiology ISSN: 26318261 ISBN: 9781789842494 9781789842500 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 202 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.74489 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Cytology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Since the development of microelectronic clamping methodology and fluorescent indicators for direct measurement of dynamic intracellular calcium transients, our understanding of biological signal transduction has progressed dramatically since the 1980s. Calcium is a universal signal in biology that modulates gene expression, transmitter and hormone release, muscular movement, and even ""programmed"" cell death. This book represents a compilation of chapters from a diverse set of expert biologists throughout the world who have conducted research in the general area of calcium signaling in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. In accord with priorities of resolving human disease, the reader will also benefit from learning calcium's role in cellular signaling pathology relating to acute or chronic conditions such as vomiting, sepsis, obesity, hypertension, and cancer.

Glutathione in Health and Disease

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781789842753 9781789842760 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.70965 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Reduced glutathione (GSH) is the most important thiol in living organisms. It is the key component of antioxidant system and serves as a free radical scavenger. There is a cycle of GSH in biological systems and this cycle provides higher intracellular levels of GSH. GSH depletion and apparent oxidative stress may cause toxicity and can affect the general well-being of the organism. GSH was shown to be preventive against aging, cancer, heart disease, infections and dementia. This book is mainly focused on GSH in health and disease. The readers will gain qualified scientific knowledge on the diverse functions of GSH, the importance of GSH status against oxidative stress and the interaction between GSH and nervous system-related infections from this book.

Keratin

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Book Series: Biochemistry ISSN: 26320983 ISBN: 9781789848045 9781789848052 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 180 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73230 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Cytology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Keratin is the proteinaceous body covering layer produced by mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and amphibians. Hair and wool, horns, claws, hooves, feathers, and scales are made of keratin. Keratin is insoluble in water and is resistant to proteolysis. Importantly, keratin is also the intracellular structural protein that protects living epithelial cells from mechanical damage or stress. The fundamental keratin functions are revealed in congenital human skin diseases caused by mutations in keratin genes, e.g., Epidermolysis bullosa simplex or Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. Most keratin gene mutations have a dominant-negative effect disrupting the filamentous structure formation even from the natural allele, and leaving the cell with a deficient cytoskeleton. However, industrial scale meat production results in vast quantities of keratin byproduct. Processing this byproduct is, on the one hand a major challenge, and on the other hand, a potential for useful recycling and exploitation.

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