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Human Polyomaviruses and Papillomaviruses

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ISBN: 9783038972204 9783038972211 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-221-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-21 09:25:07
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The interest in human polyomaviruses (HPyV) has seen a renaissance because of new species that have been isolated and their previously unknown association with diseases. Likewise, the increasing evidence for the association of human papillomaviruses (HPV) with oropharyngeal cancer has sparked the attention of researchers and clinicians. The Special Issue “Human Polyomaviruses and Papillomaviruses” presents studies describing the nuclear egress of BK polyomavirus mediated by the viral agnoprotein and the cellular -SNAP protein. In addition, a study examines the promoter activity of two different variants of human polyomavirus 9 in different cell lines. This Special Issue offers an interesting perspective on the epidemiology of HR-HPV in different cancers and on the mechanisms by which these viruses target host cell proteins to replicate their genome, express their genes, interfere with autophagy, and induce cancer. Other topics that are highlighted include the role of co-factors, such as smoking and co-infection, novel therapeutic strategies, and surface immunoregulatory proteins, chemokines, and cytokines as possible biomarkers to determine the stage of a tumor and to predict clinical outcomes.

Epigenetic Modifications Associated with Abiotic and Biotic Stresses in Plants: An Implication for Understanding Plant Evolution

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453818 Year: Pages: 177 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-381-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Alterations in gene expression are essential during growth and development phases and when plants are exposed to environmental challenges. Stress conditions induce gene expression modifications, which are associated with changes in the biochemical and physiological processes that help plants to avoid or reduce potential damage resulting from these stresses.After exposure to stress, surviving plants tend to flower earlier than normal and therefore transfer the accumulated epigenetic information to their progenies, given that seeds, where this information is stored, are formed at a later stage of plant development.DNA methylation is correlated with expression repression. Likewise, miRNA produced in the cell can reduce the transcript abundance or even prevent translation of mRNA. However, histone modulation, such as histone acetylation, methylation, and ubiquitination, can show distinct effects on gene expression. These alterations can be inherited, especially if the plants are consistently exposed to a particular environmental stress. Retrotransposons and retroviruses are foreign movable DNA elements that play an important role in plant evolution. Recent studies have shown that epigenetic alterations control the movement and the expression of genes harbored within these elements. These epigenetic modifications have an impact on the morphology, and biotic and abiotic tolerance in the subsequent generations because they can be inherited through the transgenerational memory in plants. Therefore, epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and small RNA interference, serve not only to alter gene expression but also may enhance the evolutionary process in eukaryotes.In this E-book, original research and review articles that cover issues related to the role of DNA methylation, histone modifications, and small RNA in plant transgenerational epigenetic memory were published.The knowledge published on this topic may add new insight on the involvement of epigenetic factors in natural selection and environmental adaptation. This information may also help to generate a modeling system to study the epigenetic role in evolution.

Molecular Biology of Bamboo mosaic Virus - A Type Member of the Potexvirus Genus

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454396 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-439-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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The flexible filamentous plant viruses are responsible for more than half of all agricultural loss worldwide. Potexvirus is one of the two most important flexible filamentous plant viruses. Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV), a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus, is a member of the Potexvirus genus of Alphaflexiviridae. It can infect at least 12 species of bamboo, causing a huge economic impact on the bamboo industry in Taiwan. The study of BaMV did not start extensively until the completion of the full-length sequencing of genomic RNA of BaMV and generation of the BaMV infectious cDNA clone in the early 1990s. Since then, BaMV has been extensively studied at the molecular, cellular and ecological level, covering both basic and applied researches, by a group of researchers in Taiwan. In this eBook, the content comprises 6 reviews and 4 articles. Seven of them are involved in the infection of BaMV covering viral RNA replication, viral RNA trafficking, and the host factors. Two of them are related to the vector transmission and the ecology of BaMV. The last one is the application of using BaMV as a viral vector to produce vaccines in plants.

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