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Mood and Cognition in Old Age

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456420 Year: Pages: 165 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-642-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Improving psychological well-being and cognitive health is now listed as the priority on the healthy aging agenda. Depression and cognitive impairment are great challenges for the elderly population. There have been numerous studies on depression and cognitive impairment and dementia. However, the neural correlates of depression and cognitive impairment have not yet been elucidated. With the development of neuroscience and relevant technologies, studies on anatomical and functional neural networks, neurobiological mechanisms of mood and cognition in old age will provide more insight into the potential diagnosis, prevention and intervention in depression and cognitive impairment. For example, longitudinal neuroimaging studies depicting the trajectories of patterns of structural and functional brain networks of mild cognitive impairment may provide potential imaging markers for the onset of dementia.Population-based studies have addressed the potential interaction between mood and cognitive impairment in old age. However, there are few studies to explore the potential neural mechanism of the relationship between depression and cognitive impairment in old age.In all of this process the contribution of multiple biological events cannot be neglected, particularly the underlying influence of chronic diseases and concomitant polymedication as well as the geriatric conditions, like frailty, frequently present in this elderly population, which also compromise the cognitive function and mood determining depression and conducing to worse outcomes with more morbidity and mortality.

Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Signaling in Neuroprotection

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9789811084874 9789811084881 Year: Pages: 191 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-8488-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: Smoking Research Foundation
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-29 14:19:40
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This open access book presents the roles and mechanisms of signal transduction triggered by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) stimulation in neuroprotection against toxic effects of risk factors of neurodegenerative diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests that nAChRs in the CNS play important roles not only in excitatory neurotransmission but also in neuronal survival and related functions. Neuroprotection mediated by nAChRs in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease is the major topic of this book. In response to rapidly evolving areas in clinical and laboratory neuropharmacology and neurochemistry, this volume provides in-depth coverage of neuroprotection in basic research and future developments in the clinical application of effective neuroprotective strategies in neurodegenerative diseases. This work appeals to both basic and clinical researchers in several fields, such as neuroscience, neurology, and pharmacology.

Dementia, Frailty and Aging

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455232 Year: Pages: 121 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-523-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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The number of older subjects is rapidly increasingly worldwide. As a consequence, the nature of clinical conditions is also changing. Traditional medicine and models of care have been based on the evaluation and treatment of single and usually acute conditions occurring in relatively young individuals. Today, the usual clinical manifestation of diseases is characterized by multiple and often chronic conditions affecting older people. In this scenario, frailty and dementia have been triggering special interest both in research and clinical settings due to their high prevalence, impact on the individual’s quality of life, and consequences for public health worldwide. These conditions aptly reflect the complexity of age-related pathological conditions, finding as causal factor a myriad of heterogeneous, interacting, and often still unclear pathophysiological processes. Indeed, their study is strongly affected by the difficulty to differentiate the effects of a normal aging process from eventual pathological deviations of the underlying systems. Their occurrence and trajectories over time are strongly affected by a wide array of factors and determinants that can be hardly attributed to the deficit/involvement of single biological systems and/or health domains. Moreover, environment and social factors also play a key role in the determination of phenotypes.The present Research Topic is aimed at widening our understanding of the frailty and dementia phenomena occurring with aging, in order to improve the clinical and public health approaches to these burdening conditions.

New Insights on Basic and Clinical Aspects of EEG and MEG Connectome

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455317 Year: Pages: 97 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-531-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Recent advances in the neuroimaging field areas allow us to visualize the aggregate of neural connections at the macroscopic level within the brain, the so-called “connectome”. In order to promote the development of the neurophysiological investigation of connectome of brain oscillations, this eBook aims at bringing together contributions from researchers in basic and clinical neuroscience using EEG and MEG connectome analysis. The most important focal point will be to address the functional roles of connectome of brain oscillations in contributing to understandings of higher cognitive processes in normal subjects and pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases. This Research Topic presented novel methodologies and various applications of neurophysiological connectome analysis. As a result, these papers were cited more than 120 times in these four years in total and threw light and impact on new directions for investigating the connectome of human brain.

Translocator Protein (TSPO)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038427575 9783038427582 Year: Pages: 176 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-16 13:21:14
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The high number of papers submitted and ultimately accepted for publication in this special issue attests the great amount of research being conducted on TSPO and its role in living cells. Thus, TSPO has become an extremely attractive subcellular biomark for the early detection of disease states overexpressing this protein and for the selective delivery to mitochondria of drugs and probes. Moreover, the effort in the design and synthesis of new, more specific and effective TSPO ligands proves to be very valuable. All these topics have been addressed in the special issue.

Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Extracellular Calcium-Sensing Receptor

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455126 Year: Pages: 189 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-512-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Calcium is vital for human physiology; it mediates multiple signaling cascades, critical for cell survival, differentiation, or death both as first and as second messenger. The role of calcium as first messenger is mediated by the G-protein coupled receptor, the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). The CaSR is a multifaceted molecule that senses changes in the concentration of a wide variety of environmental factors including di- and trivalent cations, amino acids, polyamines, and pH. In calcitropic tissues with obvious roles in calcium homeostasis such as parathyroid, kidney, and bone it regulates circulating calcium concentrations. The germline mutations of the CaSR cause parathyroid disorders demonstrating the importance of the CaSR for the maintenance of serum calcium homeostasis. The CaSR has an important role also in a range of non-calcitropic tissues, such as the intestine, lungs, central and peripheral nervous system, breast, skin and reproductive system, where it regulates molecular and cellular processes such as gene expression, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis; as well as regulating hormone secretion and lactation.This Research Topic is an overview of the CaSR and its molecular signaling properties together with the various organ systems where it plays an important role. The articles highlight the current knowledge regarding many aspects of the calcitropic and non-calcitropic physiology and pathophysiology of the CaSR.

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