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Occupational Therapy - Occupation Focused Holistic Practice in Rehabilitation

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ISBN: 9789535133216 9789535133223 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.5772/65138 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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This new book presents the growing occupational therapy knowledge and clinical practice. Occupational therapy, as a health profession, is concerned with preserving well-being through occupations, and its main goal is to help people participate in the activities of daily living. This is achieved by working with people to improve their ability to engage in the occupations they want to engage in or by changing the occupation or the environment to better support their occupational engagement. The topic of the book has been structured on occupational therapy framework and reflects new research, techniques, and occupational therapy trends. This useful book will help students, occupational therapy educators, and professionals to connect occupational therapy theories and the evidence-based clinical practice.

Dialogues in Music Therapy and Music Neuroscience: Collaborative Understanding Driving Clinical Advances

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451371 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-137-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Music is a complex, dynamic stimulus with an un-paralleled ability to stimulate a global network of neural activity involved in attention, emotion, memory, communication, motor co-ordination and cognition. As such, it provides neuroscience with a highly effective tool to develop our understanding of brain function, connectivity and plasticity. Increasingly sophisticated neuroimaging technologies have enabled the expanding field of music neuroscience to reveal how musical experience, perception and cognition may support neuroplasticity, with important implications for the rehabilitation and assessment of those with acquired brain injuries and neurodegenerative conditions. Other studies have indicated the potential for music to support arousal, attention and emotional regulation, suggesting therapeutic applications for conditions including ADHD, PTSD, autism, learning disorders and mood disorders. In common with neuroscience, the music therapy profession has advanced significantly in the past 20 years. Various interventions designed to address functional deficits and health care needs have been developed, alongside standardised behavioural assessments. Historically, music therapy has drawn its evidence base from a number of contrasting theoretical frameworks. Clinicians are now turning to neuroscience, which offers a unifying knowledge base and frame of reference to understand and measure therapeutic interventions from a biomedical perspective. Conversely, neuroscience is becoming more enriched by learning about the neural effects of ‘real world’ clinical applications in music therapy. While neuroscientific imaging methods may provide biomarking evidence for the efficacy of music therapy interventions it also offers important tools to describe time-locked interactive therapy processes and feeds into the emerging field of social neuroscience. Music therapy is bound to the process of creating and experiencing music together in improvisation, listening and reflection. Thus the situated cognition and experience of music developing over time and in differing contexts is of interest in time series data. We encouraged researchers to submit papers illustrating the mutual benefits of dialogue between music therapy and other disciplines important to this field, particularly neuroscience, neurophysiology, and neuropsychology. The current eBook consists of the peer reviewed responses to our call for papers.

Soaking up the rays: Light therapy and visual culture in Britain, c. 1890–1940

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ISBN: 9781526115980 Year: Pages: 288 Language: English
Publisher: Manchester University Press Grant: Wellcome Trust - 098912
Subject: History --- Medicine (General) --- History of arts
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-10 11:01:42
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Soaking up the rays forges a new path for exploring Britain’s fickle love of the light by investigating the beginnings of light therapy in the country, from c.1890–1940. Despite rapidly becoming a leading treatment for tuberculosis, rickets and other infections and skin diseases, light therapy was a contentious medical practice. Bodily exposure to light, whether for therapeutic or aesthetic ends, persists as a contested subject to this day: recommended to counter psoriasis and other skin conditions as well as Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) and depression; closely linked to notions of beauty, happiness and well-being, fuelling tourism to sunny locales abroad and the tanning industry at home; and yet with repeated health warnings that it is a dangerous carcinogen. By analysing archival photographs, illustrated medical texts, advertisements, lamps, and goggles and their visual representation of how light acted upon the body, Woloshyn assesses their complicated contribution to the founding of light therapy. Soaking up the rays will appeal to those intrigued by medicine’s visual culture, especially academics and students of the histories of art and visual culture, material cultures, medicine, science and technology, and popular culture.

Neurological Physical Therapy

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ISBN: 9789535131137 9789535131144 Year: Pages: 234 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68857 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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Physical therapy services may be provided alongside or in conjunction with other medical services. They are performed by physical therapists (known as physiotherapists in many countries) with the help of other medical professionals. This book consists of 12 chapters written by several professionals from different parts of the world. The book covers different subjects, such as the effects of physical therapy, motor imagery, neuroscience-based rehabilitation for neurological patients, and applications of robotics for stroke and cerebral palsy. We hope that this book will open up new directions for physical therapists in the field of neurological physical therapy.

Sound, Music and Movement in Parkinson's Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450794 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-079-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology --- Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Recent years have brought new insights to the understanding of Parkinson’s disease, impact of exercise and sound displays in rehabilitation and movement facilitation. There is growing evidence that auditory signals in the environment can provide a temporal template for movement and change the mode of motor control from intrinsic to extrinsic; habitual to goal-directed, enabling enhanced motor performance in patients. In addition, forced exercise rate studies show that exercising at the pace of healthy adults can have potential neuroprotective benefits for patients. Many research groups have explored the use of auditory cues (such as rhythmical auditory training) in improving gait and upper limb movement parameters. Cues are usually either intermittent (metronome) or continuous (dynamic sound displays). Similarly, dance based interventions suggest that patients benefit from additional sensory information (i.e. the temporal structure embedded in music and proprioceptive information from a dancing partner) that facilities movement. On the contrary, studies dedicated to auditory perception and motor timing report an impaired ability of patients to perceive and synchronise with complex rhythmical structures (i.e. causing an inability to play musical instruments). With the growth of modern technology and the increasing portability of hi-specification devices (such as smart phones), new research questions on the design of interventions are beginning to emerge as we strive for more efficient therapeutic approaches. In this Research Topic we wanted to bring together top scientists from the movement disorder, motor control and sound related studies along with therapists. That way, we can engage in cross-disciplinary and challenging scientific debate about future rehabilitation avenues and frontiers for Parkinson’s disease patients.

Tumor Hypoxia: Impact in Tumorigenesis, Diagnosis, Prognosis and Therapeutics

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450640 Year: Pages: 113 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-064-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Science (General) --- Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Hypoxic regions have been identified within tumors and its presence has been linked to malignant progression, metastasis, resistance to therapy, and poor clinical outcomes following treatment. Acute and chronic hypoxia are integral components of tumor microenvironment and conduce to metabolic adaptations of tumor cells leading to genetic instability, intratumor heterogeneity and malignant progression. On the success of our fight against cancer, the continued adaptability of tumors to their microenvironmental stresses, such as hypoxia, must be considered. Tumor cells are endowed with a very high plasticity and capacity to adapt. It is our challenge to find populations and conditions of the tumor microenvironment germane for target success. Interdisciplinary work will be the key for achievement of these goals. This e-book is a compendium of original reports and review articles contributed by world-class experts in the field of tumor hypoxia. This material will be useful to foster discussion and increase understanding of the involvement of hypoxia in tumorigenesis, biomarker development, and therapeutics.Hypoxic regions have been identified within tumors and its presence has been linked to malignant progression, metastasis, resistance to therapy, and poor clinical outcomes following treatment. Acute and chronic hypoxia are integral components of tumor microenvironment and conduce to metabolic adaptations of tumor cells leading to genetic instability, intratumor heterogeneity and malignant progression. On the success of our fight against cancer, the continued adaptability of tumors to their microenvironmental stresses, such as hypoxia, must be considered. Tumor cells are endowed with a very high plasticity and capacity to adapt. It is our challenge to find populations and conditions of the tumor microenvironment germane for target success. Interdisciplinary work will be the key for achievement of these goals. This e-book is a compendium of original reports and review articles contributed by world-class experts in the field of tumor hypoxia. This material will be useful to foster discussion and increase understanding of the involvement of hypoxia in tumorigenesis, biomarker development, and therapeutics.

Keywords

hypoxia --- tumor --- microenvironment --- HIF --- pH --- stress --- Stem Cells --- Leukemia --- biomarkers --- therapy

Innovative Radiopharmaceuticals in Oncology and Neurology

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451746 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-174-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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The aim of this Research Topic was to assemble a series of articles describing basic, preclinical and clinical research studies on radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear medicine. The articles were written by attendees of the third Nuclear Technologies for Health Symposium (NTHS, 10th-11th March 2015, Nantes, Frances) under the auspices of the IRON LabEx (Innovative Radiopharmaceuticals for Oncology and Neurology Laboratory of Excellence). This French network, gathering approximately 160 scientists from 12 academic research teams (Funded by “investissements d’Avenir”), fosters transdisciplinary projects between teams with expertise in chemistry, radiochemistry, radiopharmacy, formulation, biology, nuclear medicine and medical physics. The 12 articles within this resulting eBook present a series of comprehensive reviews and original research papers on multimodality imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy; illustrating the different facets of studies currently conducted in these domains.

Advances in Emotion Regulation: From Neuroscience to Psychotherapy

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452439 Year: Pages: 159 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-243-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Emotions are the gift nature gave us to help us connect with others. Emotions do not come from out of nowhere. Rather, they are constantly generated, usually by stimuli in our interpersonal world. They bond us to others, guide us in navigating our social interactions, and help us care for each other. Paraphrasing Shakespeare, “Our relationships are such stuff as emotions are made of”. Emotions express our needs and desires. When problems happen in our relationships, emotions arise to help us fixing those problems. However, when emotions can become dysregulated, pathology begins. Almost all forms of psychopathology are associated with dysregulated emotions or dysregulatory mechanisms. These dysregulated emotions can become regulated when the therapist helps clients express, face and regulate their emotions, and channel them into healthy actions. This research topic gathers contributions from affective neuroscientists and psychotherapists to illustrate how our emotions become dysregulated in life and can become regulated through psychotherapy.

Phage Therapy: Past; Present and Future

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452514 Year: Pages: 392 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-251-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Historically, the first observation of a transmissible lytic agent that is specifically active against a bacterium (Bacillus anthracis) was by a Russian microbiologist Nikolay Gamaleya in 1898. At that time, however, it was too early to make a connection to another discovery made by Dmitri Ivanovsky in 1892 and Martinus Beijerinck in 1898 on a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants. Thus the viral world was discovered in two of the three domains of life, and our current understanding is that viruses represent the most abundant biological entities on the planet. The potential of bacteriophages for infection treatment have been recognized after the discoveries by Frederick Twort and Felix d’Hérelle in 1915 and 1917. Subsequent phage therapy developments, however, have been overshadowed by the remarkable success of antibiotics in infection control and treatment, and phage therapy research and development persisted mostly in the former Soviet Union countries, Russia and Georgia, as well as in France and Poland. The dramatic rise of antibiotic resistance and especially of multi-drug resistance among human and animal bacterial pathogens, however, challenged the position of antibiotics as a single most important pillar for infection control and treatment. Thus there is a renewed interest in phage therapy as a possible additive/alternative therapy, especially for the infections that resist routine antibiotic treatment. The basis for the revival of phage therapy is affected by a number of issues that need to be resolved before it can enter the arena, which is traditionally reserved for antibiotics. Probably the most important is the regulatory issue: How should phage therapy be regulated? Similarly to drugs? Then the co-evolving nature of phage-bacterial host relationship will be a major hurdle for the production of consistent phage formulae. Or should we resort to the phage products such as lysins and the corresponding engineered versions in order to have accurate and consistent delivery doses? We still have very limited knowledge about the pharmacodynamics of phage therapy. More data, obtained in animal models, are necessary to evaluate the phage therapy efficiency compared, for example, to antibiotics. Another aspect is the safety of phage therapy. How do phages interact with the immune system and to what costs, or benefits? What are the risks, in the course of phage therapy, of transduction of undesirable properties such as virulence or antibiotic resistance genes? How frequent is the development of bacterial host resistance during phage therapy? Understanding these and many other aspects of phage therapy, basic and applied, is the main subject of this Topic.

Music and Disorders of Consciousness: Emerging Research, Practice and Theory

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450992 Year: Pages: 83 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-099-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Music processing in severely brain-injured patients with disorders of consciousness has been an emergent field of interest for over 30 years, spanning the disciplines of neuroscience, medicine, the arts and humanities. Disorders of consciousness (DOC) is an umbrella term that encompasses patients who present with disorders across a continuum of consciousness including people who are in a coma, in vegetative state (VS)/have unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS), and in minimally conscious state (MCS). Technological developments in recent years, resulting in improvements in medical care and technologies, have increased DOC population numbers, the means for investigating DOC, and the range of clinical and therapeutic interventions under validation. In neuroimaging and behavioural studies, the auditory modality has been shown to be the most sensitive in diagnosing awareness in this complex population. As misdiagnosis remains a major problem in DOC, exploring auditory responsiveness and processing in DOC is, therefore, of central importance to improve therapeutic interventions and medical technologies in DOC. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the role of music as a potential treatment and medium for diagnosis with patients with DOC, from the perspectives of research, clinical practice and theory. As there are almost no treatment options, such a non-invasive method could constitute a promising strategy to stimulate brain plasticity and to improve consciousness recovery. It is therefore an ideal time to draw together specialists from diverse disciplines and interests to share the latest methods, opinions, and research on this topic in order to identify research priorities and progress inquiry in a coordinated way. This Research Topic aimed to bring together specialists from diverse disciplines involved in using and researching music with DOC populations or who have an interest in theoretical development on this topic. Specialists from the following disciplines participated in this special issue: neuroscience; medicine; music therapy; clinical psychology; neuromusicology; and cognitive neuroscience.

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