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Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors Trafficking in Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450893 Year: Pages: 141 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-089-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The knowledge about the properties and importance of ionotropic glutamate receptor trafficking is ever increasing. Importantly, the pace of the progress has been accelerated in recent years. Here, our contributors provide a) reviews on specific topics that present an up-to-date overview of the field, as well as b) original articles with the relevant new findings.

Mind-Brain Plasticity and Rehabilitation of Cognitive Functions: What Techniques Have Been Proven Effective?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451876 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-187-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Rehabilitation of cognitive functions is a primary goal in neurological and psychiatric settings. Cognitive treatments include individual and group exercises, as well as the use of computer programs and virtual reality. Besides, ongoing studies have been examining the clinical usefulness of non-invasive cerebral cortex stimulation in increasing the efficacy of cognitive protocols. Cognitive rehabilitation is based on neuroplasticity and affects brain morphological and physiological responses by integration of behavioral and cognitive changes. The brain correlates of rehabilitation-induced modifications can be investigated through magnetic resonance imaging, both at structural and functional macro-levels. Animal research can integrate such information providing data on axonal regrowth and reshaping of synaptic connectivity in response to treatment. Animal models of neurological and psychiatric conditions have been developed, and preclinical test batteries for the assessment of cognitive functions in animal models of such conditions have been created. The question is then: how does rehabilitation drive reorganization at the neuronal level? The focus of this Research Topic is on rehabilitation-induced cognitive and neural plasticity in adult humans and animal models. The goal is to provide an integrated picture highlighting what techniques have been proven to be effective.

Die Übertragung von mikrostrukturellen Eigenschaften aus der diskreten Versetzungsdynamik in Kontinuumsbeschreibungen

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783731506584 Year: Volume: 66 Pages: XXI, 140 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000068883 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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Physically motivated dislocation density based models for the description of plastic deformation do need information about the underlying processes in a homogenized form. A rate formulation for the formation of the glissile junction for usage in continuum descriptions is developed by using three-dimensional Discrete Dislocation Dynamics. Furthermore, a contribution to the understanding of grain boundary modeling in Discrete Dislocation Dynamics as well as continuum descriptions is made.

Single-crystal gradient plasticity with an accumulated plastic slip: Theory and applications

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe Kontinuumsmechanik im Maschinenbau / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Technische Mechanik - Bereich Kontinuumsmechanik ISSN: 2192693X ISBN: 9783731506065 Year: Volume: 9 Pages: XII, 250 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000062103 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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In experiments on metallic microwires, size effects occur as a result of the interaction of dislocations with, e.g., grain boundaries. In continuum theories this behavior can be approximated using gradient plasticity. A numerically efficient geometrically linear gradient plasticity theory is developed considering the grain boundaries and implemented with finite elements. Simulations are performed for several metals in comparison to experiments and discrete dislocation dynamics simulations.

Anatomy and Plasticity in Large-Scale Brain Models

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450657 Year: Pages: 173 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-065-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Supercomputing facilities are becoming increasingly available for simulating activity dynamics in large-scale neuronal networks. On today's most advanced supercomputers, networks with up to a billion of neurons can be readily simulated. However, building biologically realistic, full-scale brain models requires more than just a huge number of neurons. In addition to network size, the detailed local and global anatomy of neuronal connections is of crucial importance. Moreover, anatomical connectivity is not fixed, but can rewire throughout life (structural plasticity)—an aspect that is missing in most current network models, in which plasticity is confined to changes in synaptic strength (synaptic plasticity). The papers in this Ebook, which may broadly be divided into three themes, aim to bring together high-performance computing with recent experimental and computational research in neuroanatomy. In the first theme (fiber connectivity), new methods are described for measuring and data-basing microscopic and macroscopic connectivity. In the second theme (structural plasticity), novel models are introduced that incorporate morphological plasticity and rewiring of anatomical connections. In the third theme (large-scale simulations), simulations of large-scale neuronal networks are presented with an emphasis on anatomical detail and plasticity mechanisms. Together, the articles in this Ebook make the reader aware of the methods and models by which large-scale brain networks running on supercomputers can be extended to include anatomical detail and plasticity.Supercomputing facilities are becoming increasingly available for simulating activity dynamics in large-scale neuronal networks. On today's most advanced supercomputers, networks with up to a billion of neurons can be readily simulated. However, building biologically realistic, full-scale brain models requires more than just a huge number of neurons. In addition to network size, the detailed local and global anatomy of neuronal connections is of crucial importance. Moreover, anatomical connectivity is not fixed, but can rewire throughout life (structural plasticity)—an aspect that is missing in most current network models, in which plasticity is confined to changes in synaptic strength (synaptic plasticity). The papers in this Ebook, which may broadly be divided into three themes, aim to bring together high-performance computing with recent experimental and computational research in neuroanatomy. In the first theme (fiber connectivity), new methods are described for measuring and data-basing microscopic and macroscopic connectivity. In the second theme (structural plasticity), novel models are introduced that incorporate morphological plasticity and rewiring of anatomical connections. In the third theme (large-scale simulations), simulations of large-scale neuronal networks are presented with an emphasis on anatomical detail and plasticity mechanisms. Together, the articles in this Ebook make the reader aware of the methods and models by which large-scale brain networks running on supercomputers can be extended to include anatomical detail and plasticity.

Advances in Genomics and Epigenomics of Social Insects

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450800 Year: Pages: 155 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-080-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Genetics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Social insects are among the most successful and ecologically important animals on earth. The lifestyle of these insects has fascinated humans since prehistoric times. These species evolved a caste of workers that in most cases have no progeny. Some social insects have worker sub-castes that are morphologically specialized for discrete tasks. The organization of the social insect colony has been compared to the metazoan body. Males in the order Hymenoptera (bees, ants and wasps) are haploid, a situation which results in higher relatedness between female siblings. Sociality evolved many times within the Hymenoptera, perhaps spurred in part by increased relatedness that increases inclusive fitness benefits to workers cooperating to raise their sisters and brothers rather than reproducing themselves. But epigenetic processes may also have contributed to the evolution of sociality. The Hymenoptera provide opportunities for comparative study of species ranging from solitary to highly social. A more ancient clade of social insects, the termites (infraorder Isoptera) provide an opportunity to study alternative mechanisms of caste determination and lifestyles that are aided by an array of endosymbionts. This research topic explores the use of genome sequence data and genomic techniques to help us explore how sociality evolved in insects, how epigenetic processes enable phenotypic plasticity, and the mechanisms behind whether a female will become a queen or a worker.

Forage Plant Ecophysiology

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ISBN: 9783038424888 9783038424895 Year: Pages: XVI, 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-489-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-17 13:01:36
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Forage plant ecophysiology has been described, perhaps mischievously, as the selective application of useful information from pure plant physiology research to provide human benefit through improved agricultural output. The intention of creating this Special Issue was to create a volume that future researchers will find user friendly and want to consult, while ensuring it is rich in scientific quality. Contributions were sought that provide a broad geographic representation and a snapshot of present knowledge and research on a range of forage species in use around the world.

Ubiquitin and the Brain: Roles of Proteolysis in the Normal and Abnormal Nervous System

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452859 Year: Pages: 241 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-285-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) in the nervous system has been extensively studied both in the context of normal physiological function as well as abnormal pathological conditions. Although ubiquitin was used as a marker of brain pathology, the normal functions of the UPP were not studied much in the nervous system until the 1990s. The early investigations focused on synaptic plasticity which was followed by studies on the roles of protein degradation in the development of the nervous system. Research on the role of abnormal roles of the UPP follows a parallel trajectory. Since the 2000s, the field has grown to encompass many subareas of research and several model systems. Despite the progress made, many unanswered questions still remain. For example, there are many unknowns about the precise spatial and temporal control of protein degradation in the normal nervous system. With respect to the roles of proteolysis in brain pathology a major challenge is to elucidate the connection between impaired protein degradation and disease progression. In addition, in-depth studies of the roles of ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated proteolysis in neurodegenerative diseases are promising in identifying therapeutic targets. This ebook contains original research papers and insightful reviews that cover several aspects of proteolysis by the UPP and its physiological as well as pathological functions in the nervous system.

Karolinska Institutet 200-Year Anniversary Symposium on Injuries to the Spinal Cord and Peripheral Nervous System - An Update on Recent Advances in Regenerative Neuroscience

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453245 Year: Pages: 74 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-324-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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The present E-book consists of original articles and reviews published in our Research Topic on injuries to the spinal cord and peripheral nerves and presents a wide array of novel findings and in depth discussions on topics within the field of nerve injury and repair. Our aim with this Research Topic is to bring together knowledge spanning from basic laboratory studies to clinical findings and strategies within the field of spinal cord and nerve injury and repair. We hope this publication will provide a basis for accelerated knowledge exchange within the field and hopefully a subsequent increase in research efforts and collaborations.

Microenvironment-Derived Stem Cell Plasticity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453443 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-344-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Plasticity is the hallmark of stem cells. At the same time, stem cells, like any other cell type, are influenced by their microenvironment and respond to it accordingly. A specific microenvironment is defined by a variety of factors, including biological and chemical factors, cell-cell interactions, but also metabolic and mechanical cues. Such dynamic and specialized microenvironment where the stem cells reside is considered a stem cell niche. Tissue injury as well as malignant tissue alterations lead to changes in the niche influencing the plasticity and biology of residing stem cells. Similarly, the niche changes upon tissue damage, which eventually induces differentiation of stem cells and ultimately regeneration of the tissue.

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