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Nutrition in Pregnancy - Volume II

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ISBN: 9783038423690 9783038423683 Year: Pages: XX, 270 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-28 10:21:23
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Maternal nutrition during pregnancy is of considerable interest to women, their partners and their health care professionals. In developing countries, maternal undernutrition is a major concern. However, with the increased prevalence of abundant high calorie diets, their impact upon pregnancy outcome is of concern. In addition to the amount of nutrition available and its macronutrient composition within a diet, there is emerging evidence highlighting important roles for the lesser studied micronutrients. Added to this complexity is the distinction between maternal and fetal nutrition and the impact the placenta plays in nutrient metabolism and overall nutrient supply to the fetus. Together, these many variables contribute to placental development and function, fetal growth, and, where placental/fetal nutrition and growth is compromised, through poor maternal diet, and/or diet induced alterations in placental metabolism, the impact is dramatic and can lead to lifelong implications for the offspring. This Special Issue book aims to highlight research in many of these areas.

New Approaches to the Pathogenesis of Sudden Intrauterine Unexplained Death and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453016 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-301-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the leading cause of death among infants in the first year of age. The more known definition of SIDS is the sudden unexpected death of an infant less than 1 year of age, with onset of the fatal episode apparently occurring during sleep, that remains unexplained after a thorough investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy and review of the circumstances of death and the clinical history. Despite the success of the “Back to Sleep” campaigns to reduce the risks introduced worldwide, the frequency of SIDS (striking one infant every 750-1,000 live births) has not significantly declined in the last years. Sudden Intrauterine Unexplained Death Syndrome (SIUDS), referring to fetuses that die unexpectedly, particularly in the last weeks of gestation, without any cause even after a complete autopsy, including examination of the placental disk, umbilical cord and fetal membranes, has a six-eightfold greater incidence than that of SIDS. Even if the pathogenetic mechanism of these deaths has not yet been determined, the neuropathology seems to be a consistent substrate in both SIUDS and SIDS. Subtle common developmental abnormalities of brainstem nuclei checking the vital functions have been highlighted, frequently related to environmental risk factors, such as cigarette smoke, air and water pollution, pesticides, food contamination, etc. Exogenous toxic factors can in fact interact in complex ways with the genetic constitution of the infant leading to polymorphisms and/or mutations of specific genes (as polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter gene 5-HTT, the regulator of the synaptic serotonin concentration, and of the PHOX2B, the key gene in the Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome). These interactions can directly injure the development of the autonomic nervous system, frequently resulting in hypoplasia of the vital brainstem centers, and consequently in sudden death. It is very important to continue studying these syndromes and in particular identify all possible congenital alterations and their correlation with the exposure to environmental risk factors, in order to reduce their incidence and mitigate the surrounding social concern. The goal of this research topic is to propose new approaches to explain the pathogenesis of both SIUDS and SIDS and consequently new prevention strategies to decrease the incidence of these unexpected and very devastating events for families. Expert authors in the Topic field are encouraged to submit original research articles aimed to widen the current knowledge on the pathological substrates of these deaths, also considering the correlations with possible risk factors. Submissions of hypotheses, opinions and commentaries are also welcome. This Research Topic would lead to development of targeted risk-lowering strategies to reduce the incidence of both SIUDS and SIDS. Furthermore, the adoption of appropriate preventive measures could also lead to improve the quality of life in adults, promoting active and healthy aging.

Obstetrics

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ISBN: 9789535137030 9789535137047 9789535139980 Year: Pages: 200 DOI: 10.5772/66054 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Gynecology and Obstetrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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Obstetrics is the field that deals with the well-being of the pregnant women as well as the labor and delivery of a healthy baby. Obstetricians work closely as neonatologists who deal with the care of the newborn baby to reduce chances of morbidity and mortality. The objective of obstetrics is to deal with diagnosis and treatment of pregnancy, antenatal care, and prevention of complication, collaborating with midwives to monitor pregnant women in labor, facilitating delivery and performing assisted procedures if needed as episiotomy, forceps delivery, vacuum extraction, and Cesarean section if indicated.

Neuroanatomy of Human Brain Development

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451203 Year: Pages: 221 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-120-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The human brain is extraordinary complex and yet its origin is a simple tubular structure. Rapid and dramatic structural growth takes place during the fetal and perinatal period. By the time of birth, a repertoire of major cortical, subcortical and white matter structures resembling the adult pattern has emerged, however there are continued maturational changes of the gray matter and white matter throughout childhood and adolescence and into adulthood. The maturation of neuronal structures provides the neuroanatomical basis for the acquisition and refinement of cognitive functions during postnatal development. Histological imaging has been traditionally dominant in understanding neuroanatomy of early brain development and still plays an unparalleled role in this field. Modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques including diffusion MRI, as noninvasive tools readily applied to in vivo brains, have become an important complementary approach in revealing the detailed brain anatomy, including the structural connectivity between brain regions. In this research topic, we presented the most recent investigations on understanding the neuroanatomy and connectivity of human brain development using both histology and MRI. Modern advances in mapping normal developmental brain anatomy and connectivity should elucidate many neurodevelopmental disorders, ranging from rare congenital malformations to common disorders such as autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is a prerequisite for better diagnosis and treatment of these currently poorly understood diseases.

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