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Complications and Quandaries in the ICT Sector: Standard Essential Patents and Competition Issues

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ISBN: 9789811060106 9789811060113 Year: Pages: 200 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-6011-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-24 11:24:42
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With technology standards becoming increasingly common, particularly in the information and communications technology (ICT) sector, the complexities and contradictions at the interface of intellectual property law and competition law have emerged strongly. This book talks about how the regulatory agencies and courts in the United States, European Union and India are dealing with the rising allegations of anti-competitive behaviour by standard essential patent (SEP) holders. It also discusses the role of standards setting organizations / standards developing organizations (SSO/SDO) and the various players involved in implementing the standards that influence practices and internal dynamics in the ICT sector. This book includes discussions on fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory (FRAND) licensing terms and the complexities that arise when both licensors and licensees of SEPs differ on what they mean by “fair”, “reasonable” and “non-discriminatory” terms. It also addresses topics such as the appropriate royalty base, calculation of FRAND rates and concerns related to FRAND commitments and the role of Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in collaborative standard setting process. This book provides a wide range of valuable information and is a useful tool for graduate students, academics and researchers.

Keywords

patents --- competition --- antitrust

Shipbuilding and Ship Repair Workers around the World

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ISBN: 9789462981157 Year: DOI: 10.5117/9789462981157 Language: Undetermined
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-14 11:01:13
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Maritime trade is the backbone of the world’s economy. Around ninety percent of all goods are transported by ship, and since World War II, shipbuilding has undergone major changes in response to new commercial pressures and opportunities. Early British dominance, for example, was later undermined in the 1950s by competition from the Japanese, who have since been overtaken by South Korea and, most recently, China. The case studies in this volume trace these and other important developments in the shipbuilding and ship repair industries, as well as workers’ responses to these historic transformations.

Ténis: estratégia, perceção e ação

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Book Series: Ensino ISBN: 9789892612850 Year: Pages: 326 DOI: https://doi.org/10.14195/978-989-26-1286-7 Language: Portuguese
Publisher: Coimbra University Press
Subject: Sports Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-23 16:21:06
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The strategic management of training and competition in tennis is a highly complex process that convenes transdisciplinary knowledge, including, in particular, the technique and biomechanics, the tactic, the psychology, but also the physiology, nutrition, auxology or immunology. Without the pretension of analyzing all of the determinants of the process, this book aims to introduce the tennis from a complex approach regarding the conceptualization and operationalization of the process, and also in relation to the understanding of the phenomenon and the prediction of profiles that give more guarantees of positive results. Over the eleven chapters, various national and foreign researchers develop themes including strategy, philosophy and model of game, pedagogy and didactics, learning and motor control, psychology, tactics, and health. It is a book that is directed to students, researchers, coaches and managers, as well as other people connected to tennis.

Keywords

sport --- tennis --- management --- training --- stratety --- competition

Plant Competition in a Changing World

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452057 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-205-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Competitiveness describes a key ability important for plants to grow and survive abiotic and biotic stresses. Under optimal, but particularly under non-optimal conditions, plants compete for resources including nutrients, light, water, space, pollinators and other. Competition occurs above- and belowground. In resource-poor habitats, competition is generally considered to be more pronounced than in resource-rich habitats. Although competition occurs between different players within an ecosystem such as between plants and soil microorganisms, our topic focusses on plant-plant interactions and includes inter-specific competition between different species of similar and different life forms and intra-specific competition.Strategies for securing resources via spatial or temporal separation and different resource needs generally reduce competition. Increasingly important is the effect of invasive plants and subsequent decline in biodiversity and ecosystem function. Current knowledge and future climate predictions suggest that in some situations competition will be intensified with occurrence of increased abiotic (e.g. water and nutrient limitations) and biotic stresses (e.g. mass outbreak of insects), but competition might also decrease in situations where plant productivity and survival declines (e.g. habitats with degraded soils).Changing interactions, climate change and biological invasions place new challenges on ecosystems. Understanding processes and mechanisms that underlie the interactions between plants and environmental factors will aid predictions and intervention. There is much need to develop strategies to secure ecosystem services via primary productivity and to prevent the continued loss of biodiversity.This Research Topic provides an up-to-date account of knowledge on plant-plant interactions with a focus on identifying the mechanisms underpinning competitive ability. The Research Topic aims to showcase knowledge that links ecological relevance with physiological processes to better understanding plant and ecosystem function.

Fitness Costs and Benefits of Female Song

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452583 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-258-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Bird song, traditionally regarded as primarily a male trait, is in fact widespread among female songbirds and was probably present in the ancestor of modern songbirds (Odom et al 2014 Nature Communications). These recent findings challenge the view that sexual dimorphism in the expression and complexity of song is largely the outcome of sexual selection on males. It is now clear that understanding the evolution of bird song requires explaining variation within and among species in the expression and complexity of female song. To do this, we need a better understanding of the nature of variation in female song in different contexts and systems, as well as the fitness costs and benefits of variation in the expression and complexity of female song. This Research Topic draws together current research on female song with the goal of understanding the fitness costs and benefits of the diversity of female singing behaviour apparent among songbirds. It includes articles ranging from single-species studies investigating how female song varies with context and contrasts with male song, to comparative analyses exploring relationships between female song and ecological, social, and other factors, as well as opinion pieces.

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