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Cancer Care Delivery and Women's Health

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453092 Year: Pages: 153 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-309-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Cancer care delivery refers to the multiple layers of the health care system that interact to affect outcomes for patients with cancer and the quality of that care. The factors included in the care delivery system that potentially alter outcomes include social dynamics, financing systems, organizational structures and processes, health technologies, provider and individual behaviors. Because women’s health care has its own unique challenges, the intersection between cancer care delivery and women’s health is to be examined in this Frontiers in Oncology issue. The unique opportunities and challenges of improving the health care system for women with breast and gynecologic cancers are to be explored in depth. We will visit many topics of cancer care delivery with the unique perspective geared towards the care of women’s malignancies.

Chapter: 'Analysis of Breast Cancer Cell Invasion Using an Organotypic Culture System' from book: 3D Cell Culture: Methods and Protocols (Book chapter)

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Book Series: Methods in Molecular Biology ISSN: 1064-3745 / 1940-6029 ISBN: 9781493970193 9781493970216 Year: Volume: 1612 Pages: 13 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/9781493970216_15 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-19 15:44:38
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Metastasis is the main cause of cancer patient mortality. Local tumor invasion is a key step in metastatic dissemination whereby cancer cells dislodge from primary tumors, migrate through the peritumoral stroma and reach the circulation. This is a highly dynamic process occurring in three dimensions that involves interactions between tumor, stromal cells, and the extracellular matrix. Here we describe the organotypic culture system and its utility to study breast cancer cell invasion induced by cancer-associated fibroblasts. This is a three-dimensional model that reproduces the biochemical and physiological properties of real tissue and allows for investigating the molecular and cellular mechanisms involving tumor and its microenvironment, and their contribution to cancer cell invasion. This system provides a robust, accurate, and reproducible method for measuring cancer cell invasion and represents a valuable tool to improve the mechanistic understanding of the initial steps in metastasis.

Exploring Cancer Metabolic Reprogramming Through Molecular Imaging

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452347 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-234-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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The inclusion of oncogene-driven reprogramming of energy metabolism within the list of cancer hallmarks (Hanahan and Weinberg, Cell 2000, 2011) has provided major impetus to further investigate the existence of a much wider metabolic rewiring in cancer cells, which not only includes deregulated cellular bioenergetics, but also encompasses multiple links with a more comprehensive network of altered biochemical pathways. This network is currently held responsible for redirecting carbon and phosphorus fluxes through the biosynthesis of nucleotides, amino acids, lipids and phospholipids and for the production of second messengers essential to cancer cells growth, survival and invasiveness in the hostile tumor environment. The capability to develop such a concerted rewiring of biochemical pathways is a versatile tool adopted by cancer cells to counteract the host defense and eventually resist the attack of anticancer treatments. Integrated efforts elucidating key mechanisms underlying this complex cancer metabolic reprogramming have led to the identification of new signatures of malignancy that are providing a strong foundation for improving cancer diagnosis and monitoring tumor response to therapy using appropriate molecular imaging approaches. In particular, the recent evolution of positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), functional MR imaging (fMRI) and optical imaging technologies, combined with complementary cellular imaging approaches, have created new ways to explore and monitor the effects of metabolic reprogramming in cancer at clinical and preclinical levels. Thus, the progress of high-tech engineering and molecular imaging technologies, combined with new generation genomic, proteomic and phosphoproteomic methods, can significantly improve the clinical effectiveness of image-based interventions in cancer and provide novel insights to design and validate new targeted therapies. The Frontiers in Oncology Research Topic “Exploring Cancer Metabolic Reprogramming Through Molecular Imaging” focusses on current achievements, challenges and needs in the application of molecular imaging methods to explore cancer metabolic reprogramming, and evaluate its potential impact on clinical decisions and patient outcome. A series of reviews and perspective articles, along with original research contributions on humans and on preclinical models have been concertedly included in the Topic to build an open forum on perspectives, present needs and future challenges of this cutting-edge research area.

Clinical Trials in Ovarian Cancer

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ISBN: 9780813586472 9780813586496 9780813586489 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Rutgers University Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 102219
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-11 11:21:02
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The first book to collect and synthesize cutting-edge research findings on the treatment of gynecological malignancies into one easy-to-use reference, Clinical Trials in Ovarian Cancer provides physicians with an invaluable resource. Gynecologic oncologist Christine S. Walsh systematically outlines each of the seminal Phase III trials that have shaped the treatment of ovarian cancers, detailing the rationale for the trial, the patient population studied, treatment delivery methods, efficacy, toxicity, and trial conclusions.

An Updated View on an Emerging Target: Selected Papers from the 8th International Conference on Protein Kinase CK2

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ISBN: 9783038424130 9783038424123 Year: Pages: 320 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-413-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-12 07:57:21
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The 8th International Conference on Protein Kinase CK2 (www.uks.eu/ck2), organized by Matthias Montenarh and Claudia Götz, will be held at the Faculty of Medicine of Saarland University, in Homburg, Germany, from 6–9 September, 2016.Protein kinase CK2 is a serine/threonine kinase, which is highly conserved in evolution. Knock-out experiments have shown that this enzyme is absolutely necessary for cell viability. The enzyme is highly expressed in rapidly proliferating cells, which goes along with an elevated enzyme activity. Protein kinase CK2 is involved in a broad range of signaling pathways, regulating proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, or senescence. Recent advances towards the characterization of the three-dimensional structure of protein kinase CK2 and its subunits will undoubtedly yield important new insights into its regulation, and the functions of CK2. Moreover, with two inhibitors of the enzyme presently in clinical phase II trials, human protein kinase CK2 has appeared as an emerging target for cancer diseases.

Emerging Functions of Septins

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452873 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-287-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Together with the microfilament, microtubule and intermediate-filament networks, septins constitute an integral part of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Historically identified as proteins critical for septum formation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, septin family GTPases are expressed and participate in the process of cytokinesis in most eukaryotes except higher plants. More than a dozen septin genes in mammals, together with various splice variants displaying tissue-specific expression patterns and flexible hetero-polymeric higher-order assembly achieve an unfathomable complexity superior to the other cytoskeletal components. Even though the initial studies in the septin field was restricted to their evolutionarily conserved role in cell division, strong expression of septins in the non-dividing cells of the brain generated great interest in understanding their role in neuronal morphogenesis and other aspects of cellular function. On one hand, recent developments indicate complex non-canonical roles for septins in diverse processes ranging from neuronal development to immune response and calcium signaling. On the other hand several lines of data including those from knockout models question the universal role for septins in animal cell cytokinesis. Mammalian hematopoietic cells seem to proliferate and efficiently undergo cytokinesis in the absence of pivotal septin proteins in a context-dependent manner. The lack of septin-dependence of hematopoiesis also opens the possibility of safely targeting septin-dependent cytokinesis for solid-tumor therapy. Thus the septin field is perfectly poised with novel roles for septins being discovered and the basic understanding on septin assembly and its canonical functions constantly revisited. The objective of this research topic was to provide an exclusive platform for discussing these rapid advances in the septin field. With a mixture of reviews and research articles encompassing diverse areas of septin research, ranging from the humble yeast model to human cancer, this ebook will be an interesting reading material for both experts as well as new comers to the septin field.

Keywords

septin --- cytokinesis --- Cilia --- mutation --- GTPase --- cytoskeleton --- yeast --- budding --- SOCE --- cancer

Systems Biology and the Challenge of Deciphering the Metabolic Mechanisms Underlying Cancer

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453337 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-333-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Since the discovery of the Warburg effect in the 1920s cancer has been tightly associated with the genetic and metabolic state of the cell. One of the hallmarks of cancer is the alteration of the cellular metabolism in order to promote proliferation and undermine cellular defense mechanisms such as apoptosis or detection by the immune system. However, the strategies by which this is achieved in different cancers and sometimes even in different patients of the same cancer is very heterogeneous, which hinders the design of general treatment options.Recently, there has been an ongoing effort to study this phenomenon on a genomic scale in order to understand the causality underlying the disease. Hence, current “omics” technologies have contributed to identify and monitor different biological pieces at different biological levels, such as genes, proteins or metabolites. These technological capacities have provided us with vast amounts of clinical data where a single patient may often give rise to various tissue samples, each of them being characterized in detail by genomescale data on the sequence, expression, proteome and metabolome level. Data with such detail poses the imminent problem of extracting meaningful interpretations and translating them into specific treatment options. To this purpose, Systems Biology provides a set of promising computational tools in order to decipher the mechanisms driving a healthy cell’s metabolism into a cancerous one. However, this enterprise requires bridging the gap between large data resources, mathematical analysis and modeling specifically designed to work with the available data. This is by no means trivial and requires high levels of communication and adaptation between the experimental and theoretical side of research.

Immunotherapy - Myths, Reality, Ideas, Future

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ISBN: 9789535131052 9789535131069 Year: Pages: 414 DOI: 10.5772/63291 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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This is another attempt of InTechOpen to continue the dissemination of international knowledge and experience in the field of immunology. The present book includes a number of modern concepts of specialists and experts in the field of immunotherapy, covering the major topics and analyzing the history, current stage, and future ideas of application of modern immunomodulation. It is always a benefit, but also a compliment, to gather a team of internationally distinguished authors and to motivate them to reveal their expertise for the benefit of medical science and health practice. On behalf of all readers, immunologists, immunogeneticists, biologists, oncologists, microbiologists, virologists, hematologists, chemotherapists, health-care experts, as well as students and medical specialists, also on my personal behalf, I would like to extend my gratitude and highest appreciation to InTechOpen for giving me the unique chance to be the editor of this exclusive book.

Biology of Myelomonocytic Cells

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ISBN: 9789535131236 9789535131243 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.5772/63122 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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Myelomonocytes are the multipotent cells in the stage of blood cell differentiation, which mainly comprise blood monocytes, tissue macrophages and subset of dendritic cells. Actually, their position and ability of judgement of the health of tissue or organ environment are the key initiators of tissue-specific immune response in a local and global fashion. Interestingly, the morpho-functional aspects of this group of cells vary to a wide range with their positional diversity. Their ability to communicate or represent the tissue microenvironment to the peripheral immune system and efficiency to engage the system to effector activation hold the key for a successful immune endeavour. The present volume shows some glimpses of such an extensive area of current immunology research.

Lymphocyte Updates - Cancer, Autoimmunity and Infection

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ISBN: 9789535133438 9789535133445 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.5772/66613 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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This book represents a synergic effort of an international team of specialists in immunology to expand the scientific achievements in the field of lymphocytes. It offers important and specific updated information to researchers, students, teachers, and medical professionals. Moreover, considering the remarkable dynamics of immunology and immunotherapy, this book ""Lymphocyte Updates - Cancer, Autoimmunity, and Infection"" aims to represent a significant source of concise scientific data and advancement of knowledge in this field. The chapters offer new insights into the latest scientific progress on lymphocyte roles in protective immunity, as well as their involvement in pathogenesis of various disorders.

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