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Potential Neuromodulatory Profile of Phytocompounds in Brain Disorders

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ISBN: 9783038423171 9783038423164 Year: Pages: VIII, 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-317-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-20 08:45:35
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Natural and chemical compounds, often used as both dietary supplements and alternative medicines, are characterized by specific chemical properties, allowing their passage across the blood brain barrier with consequent specific effects on neurotransmission. In particular, several natural compounds have shown beneficial properties in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially cognitive impairment and mood disorders, contributing to the maintenance of the physiological brain functioning by interacting with different receptors, transcription factors and signal transduction pathways. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress have also been proposed as crucial contributors to brain dysfunction development, thus recent investigations have focused on novel therapeutic approaches based on the use of phytoderivates with neuroprotective properties. Thus, this Special Issue includes a collection of 11 papers, describing key findings for the identification of molecular mechanisms required for the development of potential and promising natural therapeutics for the treatment of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders.

Non-invasive Brain Stimulation in Neurology and Psychiatry

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451340 Year: Pages: 207 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-134-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Brain stimulation techniques, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS), modify brain function through interaction with multiple neurotransmitters and networks. The implementation of these non-invasive stimulation techniques in physiology, behavioral studies, with modelling or functional imaging has provided an outstanding causal link between brain structure and function and helped identify neural networks mediating cognitive or motor function. The potential efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulation procedures for the management of specific symptoms in diverse neurological and psychiatric conditions has been tested in the past decade or so. For example, repetitive TMS over prefrontal areas has been extensively investigated as a treatment for patients with medication-resistant depression and has been shown to be associated with improvement of mood. Similarly, non-invasive stimulation techniques have been applied to various symptoms of Parkinson’s disease such as bradykinesia and dyskinesias, with variables degrees of success reported. However, attempts to expand previously observed clinical improvements to other neurological disorders (e.g. Tourette’s syndrome, autism, epilepsy) has been controversial. In trying to bypass potential confounding elements, researchers aim to target neural populations altered in disease to either increase or decrease their corrupted baseline activity. In addition, a complementary approach is to extend stimulation protocols that results enhanced behavior in healthy participants. One of the potential limitation of this latter strategy has been that most of the protocols evaluated in healthy participants have been tested in populations that are not comparable to the patient populations. This Frontiers Research Topic on non-invasive brain stimulation and enhancement of function seeks to combine contributions from researchers who found non-invasive brain stimulation induced improvement of either a motoric, cognitive or behavioral nature investigated behaviorally, physiologically or using brain imaging techniques in clinical populations. Investigation of the relation between enhancement of function in healthy populations and improvement of symptoms in patients with neurological or psychiatric disorders needs further consideration. Critically, the topic will be centered on the following topics to expand current knowledge: • selection of adequate stimulation protocols, including simple questions such as whether TMS or TDCS is more efficacious for inducing enhancement of function in brain disease; • methodological issues such as optimizing cortical targets and the use of good control groups; • which symptoms to tackle in different brain disorders. For example, is it possible to de-activate hyperactive cortical regions present in Parkinson disease to induce clinical amelioration? Do protocols used in healthy populations produce similar predictable effects in parkinsonian persons?; • potential of using stimulation protocols in combination with pharmacological or cognitive therapy; • the use of appropriate clinical, behavioral, physiological and imaging tools to measure brain plastic changes. Consideration about possible multi-centre clinical trials: feasibility, problems and authorization pathways. Studies or reviews on cost-effectiveness. The aim of this topic is to determine which disease signs are treatable with non-invasive brain stimulation and available protocols to interfere with altered brain systems and produce enhanced motor and behavior outcomes. This Frontiers Research Topic will be important in identifying new avenues of clinical research for rapid advances in the field.

Inflammation in the CNS: Advancing the Field Using Intravital Imaging

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453641 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-364-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Inflammation of the CNS can have devastating, long-lived, and in some cases fatal consequences for patients. The stimuli that can induce CNS inflammation are diverse, and include infectious agents, autoimmune responses against CNS-expressed antigens, and sterile inflammation following ischemia or traumatic injury. In these conditions, cells of the immune system play central roles in promulgation and resolution of the inflammatory response. However, the immunological mechanisms at work in these diverse responses differ according to the nature of the response. Our understanding of the actions of immune cells in the CNS has been restricted by the difficulty in visualising leukocytes as they undergo recruitment from the cerebral microvasculature and following their entry into the CNS parenchyma. However, advances in in vivo microscopy over the last 10-15 years have overcome many of these difficulties, and studies using these forms of microscopy have revealed a wealth of new information regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of CNS inflammation. This Research Topic brings together state of the art reviews examining the use of in vivo imaging in investigating inflammation and leukocyte behaviour in the CNS. Papers in this Research Topic describe how in vivo microscopy has increased our understanding of the actions of immune cells in the inflamed CNS, following various stimuli including autoimmunity, infection and sterile inflammation.

The Role of the Plasminogen Activating System in Neurobiology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450633 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-063-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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This ebook contains a series of original publications, reviews and mini-reviews by leaders in the field that address the growing importance of the plasminogen activating system in neurobiology. The articles included cover the role of the plasminogen activating system as a key modulator of blood brain barrier permeability, and the implications of this in traumatic brain injury and in ischemic stroke. State-of-the-Art manuscripts are also included that address the regulatory mechanisms that control this important process.This ebook contains a series of original publications, reviews and mini-reviews by leaders in the field that address the growing importance of the plasminogen activating system in neurobiology. The articles included cover the role of the plasminogen activating system as a key modulator of blood brain barrier permeability, and the implications of this in traumatic brain injury and in ischemic stroke. State-of-the-Art manuscripts are also included that address the regulatory mechanisms that control this important process.

Neuroimmune Interface in Health and Diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453788 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-378-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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It is now well appreciated that the immune system, in addition to its traditional role in defending the organism against pathogens, communicate in a well-organized fashion with the brain to maintain homeostasis and regulate a set of neural functions. Perturbation in this brain-immune interactions due to inflammatory responses may lead to psychiatric and neurological disorders. Microglia are one of the essential cells involved in the brain-immune interactions. Microglial cells are now not simply regarded as resident tissue macrophages in the brain. These cells are derived from myeloid progenitor cells in the yolk sac in early gestation, travel to the brain parenchyma and interact actively with neurons during the critical period of neurogenesis. Microglia provide a trophic support to developing neurons and take part in the neural wiring through the activity-dependent synapse elimination via direct neuron-microglia interactions. Altered microglial functions including changes in the gene expression due to early life inflammatory events or psychological and environmental stressors can be causally related to neurodevelopmental diseases and mental health disorders. This type of alterations in the neural functions can occur in the absence of infiltration of inflammatory cells in the brain parenchyma or leptomeninges. In this sense, the pathogenetic state underlying a significant part of psychiatric and neurological diseases may be similar to “para-inflammation”, an intermediate state between homeostatic and classical inflammatory states as defined by Ruslan Medzhitov (Nature 454:428-35, 2008). Therefore, it is important to study how systemic inflammation affects brain health and how local peripheral inflammation induces changes in the brain microenvironment. Chronic pain is also induced by disturbance in otherwise well-organized multisystem interplay comprising of reciprocal neural, endocrine and immune interactions. Especially, early-life insults including exposure to immune challenges can alter the neuroanatomical components of nociception, which induces altered pain response later in life. Recently the discrete roles of microglia and blood monocyte-derived macrophages are being defined. The distinction may be further highlighted by disorders in which the brain parenchymal tissue is damaged. Therefore, studies investigating the dynamics of immune cells in traumatic brain injury and neurotropic viral infections including human immunodeficiency virus, etc. as well as neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are promising to clarify the interplay between the central nervous and immune systems. The understanding of the histological architecture providing the infrastructure of such neuro-immune interplay is also essential. This Frontiers research topic brings together fourteen articles and aims to create a platform for researchers in the field of psychoneuroimmunology to share the recent theories, hypotheses and future perspectives regarding open questions on the mechanisms of cell-cell interactions with chemical mediators among the nervous, immune and endocrine systems. We hope that this platform would reveal the relevance of the studies on multisystem interactions to enhance the understanding of the mechanisms underlying a wide variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Traumatic Brain Injury as a Systems Neuroscience Problem

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450985 Year: Pages: 167 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-098-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is traditionally viewed as an anatomic and neuropathological condition. Caring for TBI patients is a matter of defining the extent of an anatomical lesion, managing this lesion, and minimizing secondary brain injury. On the research side, the effects of TBI often are studied in the context of neuronal and axonal degeneration and the subsequent deposition of abnormal proteins such as tau. These approaches form the basis of our current understanding of TBI, but they pay less attention to the function of the affected organ, the brain. Much can be learned about TBI by studying this disorder on a systems neuroscience level and correlating changes in neural circuitry with neurological and cognitive function. There are several aspects of TBI that are a natural fit for this perspective, including post-traumatic epilepsy, consciousness, and cognitive sequelae. How individual neurons contribute to network activity and how network function responds to injury are key concepts in examining these areas. In recent years, the available tools for studying the role of neuronal assemblies in TBI have become increasingly sophisticated, ranging from optogenetic and electrophysiological techniques to advanced imaging modalities such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography. Further progress in understanding the disruption and subsequent reshaping of networks is likely to have substantial benefits in the treatment of patients with TBI-associated deficits. In this Frontiers Topic, we intend to highlight the systems neuroscience approach to studying TBI. In addition to analyzing the clinical sequelae of TBI in this context, this series of articles explores the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying network dysfunction, including alterations in synaptic activity, changes in neural oscillation patterns, and disruptions in functional connectivity. We also include articles on treatment options for TBI patients that modulate network function. It is our hope that this Frontiers Topic will increase the clinical and scientific communities’ awareness of this viable framework for deepening our knowledge of TBI and improving patient outcomes.

Dialogues in Music Therapy and Music Neuroscience: Collaborative Understanding Driving Clinical Advances

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451371 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-137-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Music is a complex, dynamic stimulus with an un-paralleled ability to stimulate a global network of neural activity involved in attention, emotion, memory, communication, motor co-ordination and cognition. As such, it provides neuroscience with a highly effective tool to develop our understanding of brain function, connectivity and plasticity. Increasingly sophisticated neuroimaging technologies have enabled the expanding field of music neuroscience to reveal how musical experience, perception and cognition may support neuroplasticity, with important implications for the rehabilitation and assessment of those with acquired brain injuries and neurodegenerative conditions. Other studies have indicated the potential for music to support arousal, attention and emotional regulation, suggesting therapeutic applications for conditions including ADHD, PTSD, autism, learning disorders and mood disorders. In common with neuroscience, the music therapy profession has advanced significantly in the past 20 years. Various interventions designed to address functional deficits and health care needs have been developed, alongside standardised behavioural assessments. Historically, music therapy has drawn its evidence base from a number of contrasting theoretical frameworks. Clinicians are now turning to neuroscience, which offers a unifying knowledge base and frame of reference to understand and measure therapeutic interventions from a biomedical perspective. Conversely, neuroscience is becoming more enriched by learning about the neural effects of ‘real world’ clinical applications in music therapy. While neuroscientific imaging methods may provide biomarking evidence for the efficacy of music therapy interventions it also offers important tools to describe time-locked interactive therapy processes and feeds into the emerging field of social neuroscience. Music therapy is bound to the process of creating and experiencing music together in improvisation, listening and reflection. Thus the situated cognition and experience of music developing over time and in differing contexts is of interest in time series data. We encouraged researchers to submit papers illustrating the mutual benefits of dialogue between music therapy and other disciplines important to this field, particularly neuroscience, neurophysiology, and neuropsychology. The current eBook consists of the peer reviewed responses to our call for papers.

Mind-Brain Plasticity and Rehabilitation of Cognitive Functions: What Techniques Have Been Proven Effective?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451876 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-187-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Rehabilitation of cognitive functions is a primary goal in neurological and psychiatric settings. Cognitive treatments include individual and group exercises, as well as the use of computer programs and virtual reality. Besides, ongoing studies have been examining the clinical usefulness of non-invasive cerebral cortex stimulation in increasing the efficacy of cognitive protocols. Cognitive rehabilitation is based on neuroplasticity and affects brain morphological and physiological responses by integration of behavioral and cognitive changes. The brain correlates of rehabilitation-induced modifications can be investigated through magnetic resonance imaging, both at structural and functional macro-levels. Animal research can integrate such information providing data on axonal regrowth and reshaping of synaptic connectivity in response to treatment. Animal models of neurological and psychiatric conditions have been developed, and preclinical test batteries for the assessment of cognitive functions in animal models of such conditions have been created. The question is then: how does rehabilitation drive reorganization at the neuronal level? The focus of this Research Topic is on rehabilitation-induced cognitive and neural plasticity in adult humans and animal models. The goal is to provide an integrated picture highlighting what techniques have been proven to be effective.

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications

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ISBN: 9783038425380 9783038425397 Year: Pages: VIII, 270 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-539-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-27 12:48:49
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The issue is dedicated to applications of Deep Brain Stimulation and, in this issue, we would like to highlight the new developments that are taking place in the field. These include the application of new technology to existing indications, as well as ‘new’ indications. We would also like to highlight the most recent clinical evidence from international multicentre trials. The issue will include articles relating to movement disorders, pain, psychiatric indications, as well as emerging indications that are not yet accompanied by clinical evidence. We look forward to your expert contribution to this exciting issue.

MAPPING MAnagement and Processing of images for Population ImagiNG

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452606 Year: Pages: 139 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-260-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Several recent papers underline methodological points that limit the validity of published results in imaging studies in the life sciences and especially the neurosciences (Carp, 2012; Ingre, 2012; Button et al., 2013; Ioannidis, 2014). At least three main points are identified that lead to biased conclusions in research findings: endemic low statistical power and, selective outcome and selective analysis reporting. Because of this, and in view of the lack of replication studies, false discoveries or solutions persist. To overcome the poor reliability of research findings, several actions should be promoted including conducting large cohort studies, data sharing and data reanalysis. The construction of large-scale online databases should be facilitated, as they may contribute to the definition of a “collective mind” (Fox et al., 2014) facilitating open collaborative work or “crowd science” (Franzoni and Sauermann, 2014). Although technology alone cannot change scientists’ practices (Wicherts et al., 2011; Wallis et al., 2013, Poldrack and Gorgolewski 2014; Roche et al. 2014), technical solutions should be identified which support a more “open science” approach. Also, the analysis of the data plays an important role. For the analysis of large datasets, image processing pipelines should be constructed based on the best algorithms available and their performance should be objectively compared to diffuse the more relevant solutions. Also, provenance of processed data should be ensured (MacKenzie-Graham et al., 2008). In population imaging this would mean providing effective tools for data sharing and analysis without increasing the burden on researchers. This subject is the main objective of this research topic (RT), cross-listed between the specialty section “Computer Image Analysis” of Frontiers in ICT and Frontiers in Neuroinformatics. Firstly, it gathers works on innovative solutions for the management of large imaging datasets possibly distributed in various centers. The paper of Danso et al. describes their experience with the integration of neuroimaging data coming from several stroke imaging research projects. They detail how the initial NeuroGrid core metadata schema was gradually extended for capturing all information required for future metaanalysis while ensuring semantic interoperability for future integration with other biomedical ontologies. With a similar preoccupation of interoperability, Shanoir relies on the OntoNeuroLog ontology (Temal et al., 2008; Gibaud et al., 2011; Batrancourt et al., 2015), a semantic model that formally described entities and relations in medical imaging, neuropsychological and behavioral assessment domains. The mechanism of “Study Card” allows to seamlessly populate metadata aligned with the ontology, avoiding fastidious manual entrance and the automatic control of the conformity of imported data with a predefined study protocol. The ambitious objective with the BIOMIST platform is to provide an environment managing the entire cycle of neuroimaging data from acquisition to analysis ensuring full provenance information of any derived data. Interestingly, it is conceived based on the product lifecycle management approach used in industry for managing products (here neuroimaging data) from inception to manufacturing. Shanoir and BIOMIST share in part the same OntoNeuroLog ontology facilitating their interoperability. ArchiMed is a data management system locally integrated for 5 years in a clinical environment. Not restricted to Neuroimaging, ArchiMed deals with multi-modal and multi-organs imaging data with specific considerations for data long-term conservation and confidentiality in accordance with the French legislation. Shanoir and ArchiMed are integrated into FLI-IAM1, the national French IT infrastructure for in vivo imaging.

Keywords

Database --- Infrastructure --- Data --- Workflow --- Neuroimaging --- Image Analysis --- Brain --- MRI

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