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Plastid Proteostasis: Relevance of Transcription; Translation and Post-Translational Modifications

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453436 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-343-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Due to their bacterial endosymbiotic origin plastids are organelles with both nuclear-encoded and plastid-encoded proteins. Therefore, a highly integrated modulation of gene expression between the nucleus and the plastome is needed in plant cell development. Plastids have retained for the most part a prokaryotic gene expression machinery but, differently from prokaryotes and eukaryotes, they have largely abandoned transcriptional control and switched to predominantly translational control of their gene expression. Some transcriptional regulation is known to occur, but the coordinate expression between the nucleus and the plastome takes place mainly through translational regulation. However, the regulatory mechanisms of plastid gene expression (PGE) are mediated by intricate plastid-nuclear interactions and are still far from being fully understood. Although, for example, translational autoregulation mechanisms in algae have been described for subunits of heteromeric protein complexes and termed control by epistasy of synthesis (CES), only few autoregulatory proteins have been identified in plant plastids. It should be noted of course that PGE in C. reinhardtii is different from that in plants in many aspects. Another example of investigation in this research area is to understand the interactions that occur during RNA binding between nucleus-encoded RNA-binding proteins and the respective RNA sequences, and how this influences the translation initiation process. In addition to this, the plastid retains a whole series of mechanisms for the preservation of its protein balance (proteostasis), including specific proteases, as well as molecular chaperones and enzymes useful in protein folding. After synthesis, plastid proteins must rapidly fold into stable three dimensional structures and often undergo co- and posttranslational modifications to perform their biological mission, avoiding aberrant folding, aggregation and targeting with the help of molecular chaperones and proteases. We believe that this topic is highly interesting for many research areas because the regulation of PGE is not only of wide interest for plant biologists but has also biotechnological implications. Indeed, plastid transformation turns out to be a very promising tool for the production of recombinant proteins in plants, yet some limitations must still be overcome and we believe that this is mainly due to our limited knowledge of the mechanisms in plastids influencing the maintenance of proteostasis.

Work-Life Balance: Essential or Ephemeral?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452545 Year: Pages: 75 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-254-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Burn-out and suicide rates among physicians and scientists in academic medicine are at an all-time high and jeopardize the future of our entire profession. In the last 4 years alone, burn-out rates among physicians have increased by 25%. In a recent 2017 Medscape publication, burn-out rates in Critical Care physicians ranked in 9th place and Pediatricians ranked 13th among 27 subspecialties. Astonishingly, over 50% of the participants reported burn-out symptoms, with clear race and gender disparities. While men generally report higher burn-out rates than women, it is important to emphasize that response rates from women in these surveys were notoriously low and may not represent the complete picture. These numbers are even more dismal for tenured academic faculty at research-extensive universities. In this group, emotional exhaustion (i.e. high burn-out) is reported at 35% with a clear association with age and lower burn-out levels in the older tenured faculty. While no gender or racial/ethnic differences were found in this particular group, higher levels of burn-out were identified in individuals with financial responsibilities beyond a spouse and child. While it is comforting to note the increasing public interest and research activities in this field, successful approaches to ameliorate the burden and consequences of physician burn-out are still inadequately developed. Academic centers increasingly offer some type of work-life balance program to their employees but, unfortunately, these programs are frequently adopted from corporate business models and remain largely ineffective in the academic environment. It should be evident to most administrators that the stressors of academic clinicians and scientists substantially differ from those of corporate employees. Based on these observations and over 75 years of combined experience in academic medicine amongst the three editors of this Research Topic, we collected 26 manuscripts from 22 authors at different career stages and different genders, ethnicities, marital status and subspecialties to identify and stratify common and specific stressors and therapeutic approaches to ameliorate burn-out and achieve work-life balance in academic medicine. We are confident that each reader will identify with at least one, if not several, of the authors’ opinions, experiences and approaches to attain greater work-life balance and thereby avoid the consequences of burn-out in modern academic medicine.

Keywords

work-life balance --- stress --- Suicide --- academic --- physician --- Career --- Family --- lifestyle --- Health --- Well-being

Wind Systems and Energy Balance in the Dead Sea Valley

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Book Series: Wissenschaftliche Berichte des Instituts für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung des Karlsruher Instituts für Technologie ISSN: 1795619 ISBN: 9783731506997 Year: Volume: 74 Pages: VII, 206 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000072084 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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A new measurement concept was developed to determine the amount, variability and governing factors of evaporation from the Dead Sea. Additionally, a suitable indirect method to calculate evaporation is presented. Results show that vapour pressure deficit and wind speed are governing evaporation and that the diurnal cycle is determined by three distinct diurnal wind systems. The occurrence frequency and intensity of the wind systems are determined by local differential cooling and heating.

Evaluation of Building Resilience Under Earthquake Input Using Single, Double and Multiple Impulses

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452705 Year: Pages: 61 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-270-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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This eBook is the third in a series of books on the critical earthquake response of elastic or elastic-plastic structures under near-fault or long-duration ground motions, and includes four original research papers which were published in the specialty section Earthquake Engineering in ‘Frontiers in Built Environment’. Several extensions of the first eBook and the second eBook are included here. The first article is on the earthquake resilience of residential houses after repeated ground motions with high intensity. The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake brought a significant impact on the earthquake resilience of residential houses under repeated ground motions with high intensity in a few days. The necessary strength upgrade withstanding two repeated high-intensity ground motions was found to be 1.5. The second article is concerned with the smart enhancement of earthquake resilience of building structures under both near-fault and long-duration ground motions. A hybrid system of base-isolation and building connection control was proposed and its earthquake resilience to near-fault and long-duration ground motions was evaluated by a double impulse and a multiple impulse. It was demonstrated that the base-isolation is effective for near-fault ground motions and the building connection system using passive dampers is effective for long-duration ground motions. The third article is related to the robustness evaluation of elastic-plastic base-isolated high-rise buildings under resonant near-fault ground motions. The robustness function was introduced to evaluate quantitatively the robustness of elastic-plastic base-isolated high-rise buildings. The fourth article is an extension of the previously proposed energy balance approach to a bilinear elastic-plastic single-degree-of-freedom system under a long-duration sinusoidal ground motion. A historical difficulty in nonlinear vibration posed by Caughey (1960) and Iwan (1961) has been overcome in a smart manner after half a century. The approach presented in this eBook, together with the previous eBooks, is an epoch-making accomplishment to open the door for simpler and deeper understanding of structural reliability and resilience of built environments in the elastic-plastic and nonlinear range.

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