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Chronic and Recurrent Pain

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ISBN: 9783038424178 9783038424161 Year: Pages: X, 334 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-417-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-11 08:59:03
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For many years people assumed that children did not experience chronic pain. However, recent epidemiological studies show that chronic pain, defined as constant or recurrent pain lasting three months or longer, is common in childhood. Empirical studies have characterized chronic pain conditions including headaches, abdominal pain, chest pain, and musculoskeletal pains including fibromyalgia. These pain conditions are associated with school absence, emotional distress, disruption in family activities, and significantly reduced quality of life in both the affected child and their families. For some of these children, chronic pain persists from childhood into adulthood, causing substantial long-term personal and financial costs to the individual, society, and our health care systems.Despite the prevalence and serious consequences of pediatric chronic pain, it is still under-recognized and under-treated. Too often, chronic pain is treated as a symptom of something else, rather than as a separate condition requiring its own treatment. The goal of this Special Issue was to discuss recent advances in the understanding and treatment of pediatric chronic pain.The Special Issue Book contains 22 notable articles including original research, reviews, and commentaries. Together they provide an excellent overview of the field of chronic and recurrent pediatric pain as it stands in 2016–2017.

Keywords

Pain --- Pediatrics

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038425380 9783038425397 Year: Pages: VIII, 270 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-539-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-27 12:48:49
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The issue is dedicated to applications of Deep Brain Stimulation and, in this issue, we would like to highlight the new developments that are taking place in the field. These include the application of new technology to existing indications, as well as ‘new’ indications. We would also like to highlight the most recent clinical evidence from international multicentre trials. The issue will include articles relating to movement disorders, pain, psychiatric indications, as well as emerging indications that are not yet accompanied by clinical evidence. We look forward to your expert contribution to this exciting issue.

The Role of Primary Motor Cortex as a Marker for and Modulator of Pain Control and Emotional-Affective Processing

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452613 Year: Pages: 169 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-261-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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The sensory and motor cortical homunculi proposed by Walter Penfield were a major landmark for the anatomical mapping of the brain. More than 60 years after, the development of new tools to investigate brain function non-invasively has increased our knowledge about the structure and functions of the primary motor Cortex (M1) beyond motor control in both humans and animals. This book highlights the role of the motor cortex that goes way beyond motor functioning. We were interested in both theoretical and empirical contributions related to electrophysiological, pharmacological, neuroimaging, and neuromodulatory studies exploring the role of M1 on non-motor functions, such as pain, abnormal neuroplasticity that may lead to chronic pain conditions; or the relationship between M1 and mental imagery or emotion. This book is comprised of 15 articles published in this edited volume as a research topic collection in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience titled “The Role of Primary Motor Cortex as a Marker and Modulator of Pain Control and Emotional-Affective Processing.”

Modeling of Visual Cognition, Body Sense, Motor Control and Their Integrations

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451098 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-109-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The interdisciplinary studies between neuroscience and information science have greatly promoted the development of these two fields. The achievements of these studies can help humans understand the essence of biological systems, provide computational platforms for biological experiments, and improve the intelligence and performance of the algorithms in information science. This research topic is focused on the computational modeling of visual cognition, body sense, motor control and their integrations. Firstly, the modeling and simulation of vision and body sense are achieved by 1) understanding neural mechanism underlying sensory perception and cognition, and 2) mimicking accordingly the structures and mechanisms of their signal propagation pathways. The achievement of this procedure could provide neural findings for better encoding and decoding visual and somatosensory perception of humans, and help robots or systems build humanoid robust vision, body sensing, and various emotions. Secondly, the modeling and simulation of the motor system of the primate are achieved by mimicking the coordination of bones, muscles and joints and the control mechanisms of the neural system in the brain and spinal cord. This procedure could help robots achieve fast, robust and accurate manipulations and be used for safe human-computer interaction. Finally, by integrating them, more complete and intelligent systems/robots could be built to accomplish various tasks self-adaptively and automatically.

Neuroimmune Interface in Health and Diseases

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453788 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-378-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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It is now well appreciated that the immune system, in addition to its traditional role in defending the organism against pathogens, communicate in a well-organized fashion with the brain to maintain homeostasis and regulate a set of neural functions. Perturbation in this brain-immune interactions due to inflammatory responses may lead to psychiatric and neurological disorders. Microglia are one of the essential cells involved in the brain-immune interactions. Microglial cells are now not simply regarded as resident tissue macrophages in the brain. These cells are derived from myeloid progenitor cells in the yolk sac in early gestation, travel to the brain parenchyma and interact actively with neurons during the critical period of neurogenesis. Microglia provide a trophic support to developing neurons and take part in the neural wiring through the activity-dependent synapse elimination via direct neuron-microglia interactions. Altered microglial functions including changes in the gene expression due to early life inflammatory events or psychological and environmental stressors can be causally related to neurodevelopmental diseases and mental health disorders. This type of alterations in the neural functions can occur in the absence of infiltration of inflammatory cells in the brain parenchyma or leptomeninges. In this sense, the pathogenetic state underlying a significant part of psychiatric and neurological diseases may be similar to “para-inflammation”, an intermediate state between homeostatic and classical inflammatory states as defined by Ruslan Medzhitov (Nature 454:428-35, 2008). Therefore, it is important to study how systemic inflammation affects brain health and how local peripheral inflammation induces changes in the brain microenvironment. Chronic pain is also induced by disturbance in otherwise well-organized multisystem interplay comprising of reciprocal neural, endocrine and immune interactions. Especially, early-life insults including exposure to immune challenges can alter the neuroanatomical components of nociception, which induces altered pain response later in life. Recently the discrete roles of microglia and blood monocyte-derived macrophages are being defined. The distinction may be further highlighted by disorders in which the brain parenchymal tissue is damaged. Therefore, studies investigating the dynamics of immune cells in traumatic brain injury and neurotropic viral infections including human immunodeficiency virus, etc. as well as neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are promising to clarify the interplay between the central nervous and immune systems. The understanding of the histological architecture providing the infrastructure of such neuro-immune interplay is also essential. This Frontiers research topic brings together fourteen articles and aims to create a platform for researchers in the field of psychoneuroimmunology to share the recent theories, hypotheses and future perspectives regarding open questions on the mechanisms of cell-cell interactions with chemical mediators among the nervous, immune and endocrine systems. We hope that this platform would reveal the relevance of the studies on multisystem interactions to enhance the understanding of the mechanisms underlying a wide variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

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