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Minding Glial Cells in the Novel Understandings of Mental Illness

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451579 Year: Pages: 275 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-157-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Traditionally, abnormalities of neurons and neuronal networks including synaptic abnormalities and disturbance of neurotransmitters have dominantly been believed to be the main causes of psychiatric disorders. Recent cellular neuroscience has revealed various unknown roles of glial cells such as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia. These glial cells have proved to continuously contact with neurons /synapses, and have been shown to play important roles in brain development, homeostasis and various brain functions. Beyond the classic neuronal doctrine, accumulating evidence has suggested that abnormalities and disturbances of neuron-glia crosstalk may induce psychiatric disorders, while these mechanisms have not been well understood. This Research Topic of the Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience will focus on the most recent developments and ideas in the study of glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia) focusing on psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mood disorders and autism. Not only molecular, cellular and pharmacological approaches using in vitro / in vivo experimental methods but also translational research approaches are welcome. Novel translational research approaches, for example, using novel techniques such as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, may lead to novel solutions. We believe that investigations to clarify the correlation between glial cells and psychiatric disorders contribute to a novel understanding of the pathophysiology of these disorders and the development of effective treatment strategies.

Advances in Neuroimmunology

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ISBN: 9783038425700 9783038425717 Year: Pages: X, 150 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-571-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-06 12:41:40
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Neuroimmunity is a relative new and rapidly expanding area of interest that critically impacts normal brain function and a wide range of neurological disorders. Neuroimmune mechanisms operate within the nervous system and between the nervous system and periphery. Glial cells of the nervous system play a primary role in neuroimmunity, through their ability to produce and respond to neuroimmune signaling factors, which serve a number of functions, such as homeostatic regulation of nervous system function and defense against insult and infection. Dysfunction of the neuroimmune system is now thought to be an important contributing factor to many disease and injury states.The purpose of this Special Issue is to provide a representative view of current research in this growing field, with an emphasis on the central nervous system.

The Major Discoveries of Cajal and His Disciples: Consolidated Milestones for the Neuroscience of the XXIst Century

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450664 Year: Pages: 161 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-066-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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When Santiago Ramón y Cajal started to unravel the fine structure of the nervous system in the last decades of the XIXth century maybe only his unbeatable soul of brave Spaniard imagined that most of the descriptions were scientific truths that lasted to date. Simple histological stainings, curiosity to ameliorate these, monocular microscopes, patience for drawing his observations and a rich imaginative open mind: this is the recipy for Cajal success. His descriptions of connectivity in the nervous system, compiled in Cajal's opus magna published in 1904 ("Textura del sistema nervioso del hombre y los vertebrados") and 1911 ("Histologie du systeme nerveux"), have been corroborated by modern techniques decade after decade. Even more, the main hypothesis that Cajal raised are universally recognised as biological laws, today: the neuron theory, the law on the dynamic polarization of the neuron and the chemotropic hypothesis. That is: the nervous system is not a sincitial network but is formed by individual cells; the transmission of the nerve impulses follow a main direction within a given neuron; the axons are guided by chemical substances in a chemotropic way, till form synapses with their targets. Attracted by Cajal's strong personality and scientific success, a number of medical students and doctors join him in the crusade to explore the nervous system. And the seed planted by the universal savant was really successful: Francisco Tello described interesting aspects of the regeneration of peripheral nerves which are very useful for neuroscientist currently working in this topic; Nicolás Achúcarro significantly contributed to study neuroglia and future microglia; Pío del Río-Hortega identified two out of the four main nervous cell types, the oligodendrocytes and microglia, and proposed an almost still valid classification for the CNS tumours; Fernando de Castro made was the first description of arterial chemoreceptors in the carotid body; Rafael Lorente de Nó was a dominant figure of Neuroscience for decades after the IInd World War, first describing the columnar organization of the cerebral cortex well before Mountcastle, Hubbel and Wiesel. Even less recognised co-workers and disciples of Cajal (his brother Pedro Ramón y Cajal, Domingo Sánchez, the neurologist Rodríguez-Lafora... protagonised discoveries that are consolidated scientific truths today). Altogether, it is difficult (if not impossible) to find a school in biology contributing in such a fundamental and variated way to the common acervo like the collectively known as Cajal School or Spanish Neurological School. Although the particular way to work of the Maestro, selecting a pleiade of brilliant collaborators with whom accomplish such a titanic feat, giving them freedom for their studies, has been recognised and confronted to antagonic systems followed by other relevant scientists and scientific schools, the general recognition of such a significant major milestones for Neuroscience and their vigency in the well-marched XXIst century is not: this is the purpose of this Ebook, to remind all these examples of how successful can be the scientific work when it is minutious, constant and performed by brilliant, imaginative and skilled scientists with a minimal conditions supporting their efforts.When Santiago Ramón y Cajal started to unravel the fine structure of the nervous system in the last decades of the XIXth century maybe only his unbeatable soul of brave Spaniard imagined that most of the descriptions were scientific truths that lasted to date. Simple histological stainings, curiosity to ameliorate these, monocular microscopes, patience for drawing his observations and a rich imaginative open mind: this is the recipy for Cajal success. His descriptions of connectivity in the nervous system, compiled in Cajal's opus magna published in 1904 ("Textura del sistema nervioso del hombre y los vertebrados") and 1911 ("Histologie du systeme nerveux"), have been corroborated by modern techniques decade after decade. Even more, the main hypothesis that Cajal raised are universally recognised as biological laws, today: the neuron theory, the law on the dynamic polarization of the neuron and the chemotropic hypothesis. That is: the nervous system is not a sincitial network but is formed by individual cells; the transmission of the nerve impulses follow a main direction within a given neuron; the axons are guided by chemical substances in a chemotropic way, till form synapses with their targets. Attracted by Cajal's strong personality and scientific success, a number of medical students and doctors join him in the crusade to explore the nervous system. And the seed planted by the universal savant was really successful: Francisco Tello described interesting aspects of the regeneration of peripheral nerves which are very useful for neuroscientist currently working in this topic; Nicolás Achúcarro significantly contributed to study neuroglia and future microglia; Pío del Río-Hortega identified two out of the four main nervous cell types, the oligodendrocytes and microglia, and proposed an almost still valid classification for the CNS tumours; Fernando de Castro made was the first description of arterial chemoreceptors in the carotid body; Rafael Lorente de Nó was a dominant figure of Neuroscience for decades after the IInd World War, first describing the columnar organization of the cerebral cortex well before Mountcastle, Hubbel and Wiesel. Even less recognised co-workers and disciples of Cajal (his brother Pedro Ramón y Cajal, Domingo Sánchez, the neurologist Rodríguez-Lafora... protagonised discoveries that are consolidated scientific truths today). Altogether, it is difficult (if not impossible) to find a school in biology contributing in such a fundamental and variated way to the common acervo like the collectively known as Cajal School or Spanish Neurological School. Although the particular way to work of the Maestro, selecting a pleiade of brilliant collaborators with whom accomplish such a titanic feat, giving them freedom for their studies, has been recognised and confronted to antagonic systems followed by other relevant scientists and scientific schools, the general recognition of such a significant major milestones for Neuroscience and their vigency in the well-marched XXIst century is not: this is the purpose of this Ebook, to remind all these examples of how successful can be the scientific work when it is minutious, constant and performed by brilliant, imaginative and skilled scientists with a minimal conditions supporting their efforts.

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