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Genomics and Effectomics of the Crop Killer Xanthomonas

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199020 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-902-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Phytopathogenic bacteria of the Xanthomonas genus cause severe diseases on hundreds of host plants, including economically important crops, such as bean, cabbage, cassava, citrus, hemp, pepper, rice, sugarcane, tomato or wheat. Diseases occurring in nature comprise bacterial blight, canker, necrosis, rot, scald, spot, streak or wilt. Xanthomonas spp. are distributed worldwide and pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains are essentially found in association to plants. Some phytopathogenic strains are emergent or re-emergent and, consequently, dramatically impact agriculture, economy and food safety. During the last decades, massive efforts were undertaken to decipher Xanthomonas biology. So far, more than one hundred complete or draft genomes from diverse Xanthomonas species have been sequenced (http://www.xanthomonas.org), thus providing powerful tools to study genetic determinants triggering pathogenicity and adaptation to plant habitats. Xanthomonas spp. employ an arsenal of virulence factors to invade its host, including extracellular polysaccharides, plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, adhesins and secreted effectors. In most xanthomonads, type III secretion (T3S) system and secreted effectors (T3Es) are essential to bacterial pathogenicity through the inhibition of plant immunity or the induction of plant susceptibility (S) genes, as reported for Transcription Activation-Like (TAL) effectors. Yet, toxins can also be major virulence determinants in some xanthomonads while nonpathogenic Xanthomonas species do live in sympatry with plant without any T3S systems nor T3Es. In a context of ever increasing international commercial exchanges and modifications of the climate, monitoring and regulating pathogens spread is of crucial importance for food security. A deep knowledge of the genomic diversity of Xanthomonas spp. is required for scientists to properly identify strains, to help preventing future disease outbreaks and to achieve knowledge-informed sustainable disease resistance in crops. This Research Topic published in the ‘Plant Biotic Interactions’ section of Frontiers in Plant Science and Frontiers in Microbiology aims at illustrating several of the recent achievements of the Xanthomonas community. We collected twelve manuscripts dealing with comparative genomics or T3E repertoires, including five focusing on TAL effectors which we hope will contribute to advance research on plant pathogenic bacteria.

Current Challenges and Future Perspectives on Emerging Bioelectrochemical Technologies

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199044 Year: Pages: 121 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-904-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The increasing demand for energy worldwide, currently evaluated at 13 terawatts per year, has triggered a surge in research on alternative energy sources more sustainable and environmentally friendly. Bio-catalyzed electrochemical systems (BESs) are a rapidly growing biotechnology for sustainable production of bioenergy and/or value-added bioproducts using microorganisms as catalysts for bioelectrochemical reactions at the electrode surface. In the last decades, this biotechnology has been intensively studied and developed as a flexible and practical platform for multiple applications such as electricity production, wastewater treatment, pollutants remediation, desalination and production of biogas, biofuels, or other commodities. BESs could have a critical impact on societies in many spheres of activity and become one of the solutions to reform our petroleum-based economy. However, BESs research has so far been limited to lab scale with the notable exceptions of pilot scale microbial fuel cells for brewery and winery wastewater treatment coupled with electricity generation. In general, more knowledge has to be acquired to overcome the issues that are stymieing BESs development and commercialization. For example, it is critical to understand better microbial physiology including the mechanisms responsible for the transfer of electrons between the microbes and the electrodes to start optimizing the systems in a more rational manner. There are many BES processes and for each one of them there is a multitude of biological and electrochemical specifications to investigate and adjust such as the nature of the microbial platform, electrode materials, the reactor design, the substrate, the medium composition, and the operating conditions. The ultimate goal is to develop highly energy efficient BESs with a positive footprint on the environment while maintaining low cost and generating opportunities to create value. BESs are complex systems developed with elements found in multiple fields of science such as microbiology, molecular biology, bioinformatics, biochemistry, electrochemistry, material science and environmental engineering. Given the high volume of research activities going on in the field of BESs today, this e-book explores the current challenges, the more recent progresses, and the future perspectives of BESs technologies. The BESs discussed here include microbial fuel cells, microbial electrolysis cells, microbial electrosynthesis cells, microbial electroremediation cells, etc.

Kupfer- und Eisenoxide als Konversions-Elektrodenmaterialien für Lithium-Ionen-Batterien: Thermodynamische und Elektrochemische Untersuchungen

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783731504825 Year: Volume: 56 Pages: XVI, 291 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000051891 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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Conversion-type electrodes are promising electrode materials for future lithium ion batteries since they exhibit high specific capacities compared to intercalation-type eclectrodes. In this work, a thermodynamic approach was used to elucidate the electrochemical behavior of conversion-type electrodes using Li-Cu-O and Li-Fe-O as model material systems. electrochemical properties can be calculated using self-sonstistent thermodynamic descriptions developed in this work.

Wirtschaftsbauten in der antiken Stadt. Internationales Kolloquium 16.-17. November 2012 Karlsruhe

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Book Series: Materialien zu Bauforschung und Baugeschichte / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut Kunst- und Baugeschichte, Fachgebiet Baugeschichte ISSN: 0940578X ISBN: 9783731505402 Year: Volume: 20 Pages: 253 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000055788 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Arts in general
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We are well informed about the economy during antiquity, and commercial buildings like the Basilica have been studied numerous times by archaeologists and architectural historians. However, an interdisciplinary exchange of ideas has been lacking in the past. This publication of conference proceedings tries to fill this gap; it includes papers on monetary transactions, forms of trade and trade relations, and introductions to warehouses and market places.The main focus is on the Roman Basilica, whose development started almost overnight about 200 BC at the Forum Romanum and which expressed the new hegemony of the Roman Republic, which had also become the center of all commercial activity in the Mediterranean, in regards to urban development. Two papers address the further development of the term Basilica and its influence for the building of churches and for architectural theory in general until today.

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