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Searching for Immune Tolerance Manipulating New Molecules and Exploiting New Concepts on Lymphocyte Biology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199518 Year: Pages: 143 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-951-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The break on immune tolerance is a common point between autoimmune diseases and the uncontrolled effector immune responses against allo-antigens in transplantation. Among the past years, several approaches to restore a suppressive immune state have included the targeting of co-stimulatory/inhibitory molecules on immune cells, the promotion or blockade of pivotal cytokines, and the extensive study on how to isolate and expand suppressive cells with the purpose to re-infuse them in patients. To date, the availability of new technologies has permitted to learn, in a more detailed way, the immune mechanisms carried out by suppressive lymphocytes, together with the identification of new potential candidates to target in our quest for immune tolerance. For example, the attractive concepts of lymphocyte plasticity and function stability, supported by the finding of new transcription factors, have opened a new window in the understanding of T cell differentiation, effector cell commitment and immune regulatory function. On the other hand, the discovery of new members of the Ig superfamily ligand, VISTA; the intriguing role of modulatory molecules like Retinoic Acid, Neuropilin-1, Fc gamma receptors, or cytokines such as IL-33, among others, are revealing new possibilities in the development of new strategies to conquer our obsession: immune tolerance. Here, we gather the latest information regarding new targets and cellular processes, including an update on current cellular therapies and the exciting coming approaches to cure autoimmunity and permit transplant acceptance.

Tolerance

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Book Series: Open Book Classics ISBN: 9781783742059 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0088 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-22 11:01:43
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This anthology, inspired by Voltaire’s advice that a text needed to be concise to have real influence, contains firey extracts from forty different authors, from the philosophers everyone’s heard of to those whose brilliant writings are less well-known. They are immensely diverse in style and topic, but all have in common their passionate commitment to equality, freedom, and tolerance, and every single one resonates powerfully with the issues our world faces today. The book was first published by the Société française d’étude du dix-huitième siècle (the French Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies) in the wake of the Charlie Hebdo assassinations in January 2015 as a mark of solidarity, and as a response to the wide-spread interest in Enlightenment values. With the support of the British Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies, it has now been translated by 102 French students and tutors from Oxford University.

Amino Acids of the Glutamate Family: Functions beyond Primary Metabolism

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199365 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-936-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The life of proteins starts and ends as amino acids. In addition to the primary function as protein building blocks, amino acids serve multiple other purposes to make a plant's life worth living. This is true especially for the amino acids of the glutamate family, namely glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln), proline (Pro) and arginine (Arg), as well as the product of Glu decarboxylation, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Synthesis, accumulation, interconversion and degradation of these five compounds contribute in many ways to the regulation of plant development and to responses to environmental challenges. Glu and Gln hold key positions as entry points and master regulators of nitrogen metabolism in plants, and have a pivotal role in the regulatory interplay between carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Pro and GABA are among the best-studied compatible osmolytes that accumulate in response to water deficit, yet the full range of protective functions is still to be revealed. Arg, with its exceptionally high nitrogen-to-carbon ratio, has long been recognized as a major storage form of organic nitrogen. Most of the enzymes involved in metabolism of the amino acids of the glutamate family in plants have been identified or can be predicted according to similarity with animal or microbial homologues. However, for some of these enzymes the detailed biochemical properties still remain to be determined in order to understand activities in vivo. Additionally, uncertainties regarding the subcellular localization of proteins and especially the lack of knowledge about intracellular transport proteins leave significant gaps in our understanding of the metabolic network connecting Glu, Gln, Pro, GABA and Arg. While anabolic reactions are distributed between the cytosol and chloroplasts, catabolism of the amino acids of the glutamate family takes place in mitochondria and has been implicated in fueling energy-demanding physiological processes such as root elongation, recovery from stress, bolting and pollen tube elongation. Exceeding the metabolic functions, the amino acids of the glutamate family were recently identified as important signaling molecules in plants. Extracellular Glu, GABA and a range of other metabolites trigger responses in plant cells that resemble the actions of Glu and GABA as neurotransmitters in animals. Plant homologues of the Glu-gated ion channels from mammals and protein kinase signaling cascades have been implicated in these responses. Pollen tube growth and guidance depend on GABA signaling and the root architecture is specifically regulated by Glu. GABA and Pro signaling or metabolism were shown to contribute to the orchestration of defense and programmed cell death in response to pathogen attacks. Pro signaling was additionally proposed to regulate developmental processes and especially sexual reproduction. Arg is tightly linked to nitric oxide (NO) production and signaling in plants, although Arg-dependent NO-synthases could still not be identified. Potentially Arg-derived polyamines constitute the missing link between Arg and NO signaling in response to stress. Taken together, the amino acids of the glutamate family emerge as important signaling molecules that orchestrate plant growth and development by integrating the metabolic status of the plant with environmental signals, especially in stressful conditions. This research topic collects contributions from different facets of glutamate family amino acid signaling or metabolism to bring together, and integrate in a comprehensive view the latest advances in our understanding of the multiple functions of Glu-derived amino acids in plants.

Fetal Therapies and Maternal-Fetal Tolerance

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199839 Year: Pages: 84 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-983-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The ability to diagnose and treat genetic diseases before birth represents one of the foremost breakthroughs of modern medicine. While fetal surgery has advanced in the last several decades, the prospect of applying developments in stem cell biology and gene therapy to the fetal environment remains an open frontier. This issue represents the work of international experts in the field of fetal therapy, who came together at the first meeting of the International Fetal Transplantation and Immunology Society in 2014. This meeting was convened in an effort to provide a consensus for future applications of in utero transplantation and gene therapy, as well as form an international community of colleagues to nurture this field.

The Role of Aire, microRNAs and Cell-Cell Interactions on Thymic Architecture and Induction of Tolerance

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197705 Year: Pages: 107 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-770-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The focus of this eBook is to bring new insights into central immune tolerance. To fulfill that, much has been discussed about the master in the regulation of tolerance, the autoimmune regulator (Aire) gene the main thymus cell type that expresses this gene, the medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). It includes one Editorial and 12 other excellent contributions in the format of mini reviews or original research papers covering one or more of these aspects: promiscuous gene expression (PGE), epigenetics, miRNAs, association of the Aire gene and miRNAs, thymocyte–TEC interaction, coxsackievirus and type 1 diabetes, exosomes in the thymus, thymic crosstalk, thymic B cells, T cell development, chemokines and migration of T cells, miRNAs and the thymic atrophy, cell–cell interactions, and thymus ontogeny. Authors raised hypothesis, discuss concepts, and show open questions. The remaining important issues to resolve questions within the central tolerance research are briefly discussed below.

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