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Quantum Structures in Cognitive and Social Science

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198764 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-876-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Traditional approaches to cognitive psychology correspond with a classical view of logic and probability theory. More specifically, one typically assumes that cognitive processes of human thought are founded on the Boolean structures of classical logic, while the probabilistic aspects of these processes are based on the Kolmogorovian structures of classical probability theory. However, growing experimental evidence indicates that the models founded on classical structures systematically fail when human decisions are at stake. These experimental deviations from classical behavior have been called `paradoxes’, `fallacies’, `effects’ or `contradictions’, depending on the specific situation where they appear. But, they involve a broad spectrum of cognitive and social science domains, ranging from conceptual combination to decision making under uncertainty, behavioral economics, and linguistics. This situation has constituted a serious drawback to the development of various disciplines, like cognitive science, linguistics, artificial intelligence, economic modeling and behavioral finance. A different approach to cognitive psychology, initiated two decades ago, has meanwhile matured into a new domain of research, called ‘quantum cognition’. Its main feature is the use of the mathematical formalism of quantum theory as modeling tool for these cognitive situations where traditional classically based approaches fail. Quantum cognition has recently attracted the interest of important journals and editing houses, academic and funding institutions, popular science and media. Specifically, within a quantum cognition approach, one assumes that human decisions do not necessarily obey the rules of Boolean logic and Kolmogorovian probability, and can on the contrary be modeled by the quantum-mechanical formalism. Different concrete quantum-theoretic models have meanwhile been developed that successfully represent the cognitive situations that are classically problematical, by explaining observed deviations from classicality in terms of genuine quantum effects, such as `contextuality’, `emergence’, `interference’, `superposition’, `entanglement’ and `indistinguishability’. In addition, the validity of these quantum models is convincingly confirmed by new experimental tests. We also stress that, since the use of a quantum-theoretic framework is mainly for modeling purposes, the identification of quantum structures in cognitive processes does not presuppose (without being incompatible with it) the existence of microscopic quantum processes in the human brain. In this Research Topic, we review the major achievements that have been obtained in quantum cognition, by providing an accurate picture of the state-of-the-art of this emerging discipline. Our overview does not pretend to be either complete or exhaustive. But, we aim to introduce psychologists and social scientists to this challenging new research area, encouraging them, at the same time, to consider its promising results. It is our opinion that, if continuous progress in this domain can be realized, quantum cognition can constitute an important breakthrough in cognitive psychology, and potentially open the way towards a new scientific paradigm in social science.

The Cellular Automaton Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

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Book Series: Fundamental Theories of Physics ISSN: 0168-1222 ISBN: 9783319412849 9783319412856 Year: Pages: 298 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-41285-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Astronomy (General) --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-14 10:09:28
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This book presents the deterministic view of quantum mechanics developed by Nobel Laureate Gerard 't Hooft.Dissatisfied with the uncomfortable gaps in the way conventional quantum mechanics meshes with the classical world, 't Hooft has revived the old hidden variable ideas, but now in a much more systematic way than usual. In this, quantum mechanics is viewed as a tool rather than a theory.The author gives examples of models that are classical in essence, but can be analysed by the use of quantum techniques, and argues that even the Standard Model, together with gravitational interactions, might be viewed as a quantum mechanical approach to analysing a system that could be classical at its core. He shows how this approach, even though it is based on hidden variables, can be plausibly reconciled with Bell's theorem, and how the usual objections voiced against the idea of ‘superdeterminism' can be overcome, at least in principle.This framework elegantly explains - and automatically cures - the problems of the wave function collapse and the measurement problem. Even the existence of an “arrow of time" can perhaps be explained in a more elegant way than usual. As well as reviewing the author’s earlier work in the field, the book also contains many new observations and calculations. It provides stimulating reading for all physicists working on the foundations of quantum theory.

Hybrid quantum system based on rare earth doped crystals

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Book Series: Experimental Condensed Matter Physics / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Physikalisches Institut ISSN: 21919925 ISBN: 9783731503453 Year: Volume: 16 Pages: II, 140 S DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000045903 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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Hybrid quantum circuits interfacing rare earth spin ensembles with microwave resonators are a promising approach for application as coherent quantum memory and frequency converter. In this thesis, hybrid circuits based on Er and Nd ions doped into Y?SiO? and YAlO? crystals are investigated by optical and on-chip microwave spectroscopy. Coherent strong coupling between the microwave resonator and spin ensemble as well as a multimode memory for weak coherent microwave pulses are demonstrated.

Optics in Our Time

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783319319025 9783319319032 Year: Pages: 504 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-31903-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Business and Management --- Chemical Engineering --- Industrial Engineering --- Chemical Technology --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-08 13:47:58
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Light and light based technologies have played an important role in transforming our lives via scientific contributions spanned over thousands of years. In this book we present a vast collection of articles on various aspects of light and its applications in the contemporary world at a popular or semi-popular level. These articles are written by the world authorities in their respective fields. This is therefore a rare volume where the world experts have come together to present the developments in this most important field of science in an almost pedagogical manner. This volume covers five aspects related to light. The first presents two articles, one on the history of the nature of light, and the other on the scientific achievements of Ibn-Haitham (Alhazen), who is broadly considered the father of modern optics. These are then followed by an article on ultrafast phenomena and the invisible world. The third part includes papers on specific sources of light, the discoveries of which have revolutionized optical technologies in our lifetime. They discuss the nature and the characteristics of lasers, Solid-state lighting based on the Light Emitting Diode (LED) technology, and finally modern electron optics and its relationship to the Muslim golden age in science. The book’s fourth part discusses various applications of optics and light in today's world, including biophotonics, art, optical communication, nanotechnology, the eye as an optical instrument, remote sensing, and optics in medicine. In turn, the last part focuses on quantum optics, a modern field that grew out of the interaction of light and matter. Topics addressed include atom optics, slow, stored and stationary light, optical tests of the foundation of physics, quantum mechanical properties of light fields carrying orbital angular momentum, quantum communication, and Wave-Particle dualism in action.

New Frontiers in Multiscale Modelling of Advanced Materials

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197552 Year: Pages: 91 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-755-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Atomistic simulations, based on ab-initio and semi-empirical approaches, are nowadays widespread in many areas of physics, chemistry and, more recently, biology. Improved algorithms and increased computational power widened the areas of application of these computational methods to extended materials of technological interest, in particular allowing unprecedented access to the first-principles investigation of their electronic, optical, thermodynamical and mechanical properties, even where experiments are not available. However, for a big impact on the society, this rapidly growing field of computational approaches to materials science has to face the unfavourable scaling with the system size, and to beat the time-scale bottleneck. Indeed, many phenomena, such as crystal growth or protein folding for example, occur in a space/time scale which is normally out of reach of present simulations. Multi-scale approaches try to combine different scale algorithms along with matching procedures in order to bridge the gap between first-principles and continuum-level simulations. This Research Topic aims at the description of recent advances and applications in these two emerging fields of ab-inito and multi-scale materials modelling for both ground and excited states. A variety of theoretical and computational techniques are included along with the application of these methods to systems at increasing level of complexity, from nano to micro. Crossing the borders between several computational, theoretical and experimental techniques, this Research Topic aims to be of interest to a broad community, including experimental and theoretical physicists, chemists and engineers interested in materials research in a broad sense.

Non-Linear Lattice

ISBN: 9783038423065 9783038423072 Year: Pages: XVI, 274 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-12-28 09:52:41
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The development of mathematical techniques, combined with new possibilities of computational simulation, have greatly broadened the study of non-linear lattices, a theme among the most refined and interdisciplinary-oriented in the field of mathematical physics. This Special Issue mainly focuses on state-of-the-art advancements concerning the many facets of non-linear lattices, from the theoretical ones to more applied ones. The non-linear and discrete systems play a key role in all ranges of physical experience, from macrophenomena to condensed matter, up to some models of space discrete space-time.

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