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Why vaccines to HIV, HCV and Malaria have so far failed - Challenges to developing vaccines against immunoregulating pathogens

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199662 Year: Pages: 157 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-966-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Abstract

Despite continuous progress in the development of anti-viral and anti-bacterial/parasite drugs, the high cost of medicines and the potential for re-infection, especially in high risk groups, suggest that protective vaccines to some of the most dangerous persistent infections are still highly desirable. There are no vaccines available for HIV, HCV and Malaria, and all attempts to make a broadly effective vaccine have failed so far. In this Research Topic we look into why vaccines have failed over the years, and what we have learn from these attempts. Rather than only showing positive results, this issue aims to reflect on failed efforts in vaccine development. Coming to understand our limitations will have theoretical and practical implications for the future development of vaccines to these major global disease burdens.

Keywords

Vaccine --- Infectious Disease --- HIV --- HCV --- Malaria --- influenza --- immunology --- Genetics

The Gut Microbiome - Implications for Human Disease

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ISBN: 9789535127505 9789535127512 Year: Pages: 112 DOI: 10.5772/61423 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 09:47:10

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In the last decades, the importance of gut microbiome has been linked to medical research on different diseases. Developments of other medical disciplines (human clinical pharmacology, clinical nutrition and dietetics, everyday medical treatments of antibiotics, changes in nutritional inhabits in different countries) also called attention to study the changes in the gut microbiome. This book contains five excellent review chapters in the field of gut microbiome, written by researchers from the USA, Canada, China, and India. These chapters present a critical review about some clinically important changes in the gut microbiome in the development of some human diseases and therapeutic possibilities (liver disease, cardiovascular diseases, brain diseases, gastrointestinal diseases). The book brings to attention the essential role of gut microbiome in keeping our life healthy. This book is addressed to experts of microbiology, podiatrists, gastroenterologists, internists, nutritional experts, cardiologists, basic and clinical researchers, as well as experts in the field of food industry.

Immunogenic Cell Death in Cancer: From Benchside Research to Bedside

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198382 Year: Pages: 145 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-838-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-07 16:12:31
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Classically, anti-cancer therapies have always been applied with the primary aim of tumor debulking achieved through widespread induction of cancer cell death. While the role of host immune system is frequently considered as host protective in various (antigen-bearing) pathologies or infections yet in case of cancer overtime it was proposed that the host immune system either plays no role in therapeutic efficacy or plays a limited role that is therapeutically unemployable. The concept that the immune system is dispensable for the efficacy of anticancer therapies lingered on for a substantial amount of time; not only because evidence supporting the claim that anti-cancer immunity played a role were mainly contradictory, but also largely because it was considered acceptable (and sometimes still is) to test anticancer therapies in immunodeficient mice (i.e. SCID/athymic mice lacking adaptive immune system). This latter practice played a detrimental role in appreciating the role of anticancer immunity in cancer therapy. This scenario is epitomized by the fact that for a long time the very existence of cancer-associated antigens or cancer-associated ‘danger signaling’ remained controversial. However, over last several years this dogmatic view has been considerably modified. The existence of cancer-associated antigens and ‘danger signaling’ has been proven to be incontrovertible. These developments have together paved way for the establishment of the attractive concept of “immunogenic cell death” (ICD). It has been established that a restricted class of chemotherapeutics/targeted therapeutics, radiotherapy, photodynamic therapy and certain oncolytic viruses can induce a form of cancer cell death called ICD which is accompanied by spatiotemporally defined emission of danger signals. These danger signals along with other factors help cancer cells undergoing ICD to activate host innate immune cells, which in turn activate T cell-based immunity that helps eradicate live (or residual) surviving cancer cells. The emergence of ICD has been marred by some controversy. ICD has been criticized to be either experimental model or setting-specific or mostly a concept based on rodent studies that may have very limited implications for clinical application. However, in recent times it has emerged (through mainly retrospective or prognostic studies) that ICD can work in various human clinical settings hinting towards clinical applicability of ICD. However a widespread consensus on this issue is still transitional. In the current Research Topic we aimed to organize and intensify a discussion that strives to bring together the academic and clinical research community in order to provide a background to the current state-of-the-art in ICD associated bench-side research and to initiate fruitful discussions on present and future prospects of ICD translating towards the clinical, bedside reality.

Fetal Therapies and Maternal-Fetal Tolerance

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199839 Year: Pages: 84 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-983-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The ability to diagnose and treat genetic diseases before birth represents one of the foremost breakthroughs of modern medicine. While fetal surgery has advanced in the last several decades, the prospect of applying developments in stem cell biology and gene therapy to the fetal environment remains an open frontier. This issue represents the work of international experts in the field of fetal therapy, who came together at the first meeting of the International Fetal Transplantation and Immunology Society in 2014. This meeting was convened in an effort to provide a consensus for future applications of in utero transplantation and gene therapy, as well as form an international community of colleagues to nurture this field.

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