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Population Ageing and Australia's Future

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781760460662 Year: DOI: 10.22459/PAAF.11.2016 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Political Science --- Social and Public Welfare --- Sociology --- Social Sciences --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-12-29 13:23:27
License: ANU Press

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"This volume provides evidence from many of Australia’s leading scholars from a range of social science disciplines to support policies that address challenges presented by Australia’s ageing population. It builds on presentations made to the 2014 Symposium of the Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia. The material is in four parts: Perspectives on Ageing; Population Ageing: Global, regional and Australian perspectives; Improving Health and Wellbeing; Responses by Government and Families/Individuals. ‘The Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia sees this volume as a major contribution to improving our understanding of Australia’s population ageing. Social science research in this area truly underpins our ability as a nation to manage such demographic change, and its consequences for the economy and society. Such knowledge helps ensure that our citizens can live even better lives.’ — Glenn Withers, President, ASSA"

Perception and Cognition: Interactions in the Ageing Brain

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199372 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-937-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Healthy ageing can lead to declines in both perceptual and cognitive functions. Impaired perception, such as that resulting from hearing loss or reduced visual or tactile resolution, increases demands on ‘higher-level’ cognitive functions to cope or compensate. It is possible, for example, to use focused attention to overcome perceptual limitations. Unfortunately, cognitive functions also decline in old age. This can mean that perceptual impairments are exacerbated by cognitive decline, and vice versa, but also means that interventions aimed at one type of decline can lead to improvements in the other. Just as improved cognition can ameliorate perceptual deficits, improving the stimulus can help offset cognitive deficits. For example, making directions and routes easy to follow can help compensate for declines in navigation abilities. In this Topic, we bring together papers from both auditory and visual researchers that address the interaction between perception and cognition in the ageing brain. Many of the studies demonstrate that a broadening of representations or increased reliance on gist underlie perceptual and cognitive age-related declines. There is also clear evidence that impaired perception is associated with poor cognition although, encouragingly, it can also be seen that good perception is associated with better cognition. Compensatory cognitive strategies were less successful in improving perception than might be expected. We also present papers which highlight important methodological considerations that are required when studying the older brain.

Keywords

older --- Elderly --- visual --- auditory --- Ageing --- Cognition --- cross-modal --- Compensation --- training

Role of Stem Cells in Skeletal Muscle Development, Regeneration, Repair, Aging and Disease

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198665 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-866-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Adult stem cells are responsible for tissue regeneration and repair throughout life. Their quiescence or activation are tightly regulated by common signalling pathways that often recapitulate those happening during embryonic development, and thus it is important to understand their regulation not only in postnatal life, but also during foetal development. In this regard, skeletal muscle is an interesting tissue since it accounts for a large percentage of body mass (about 40%), it is highly amenable to intervention through exercise and it is also key in metabolic and physiological changes underlying frailty susceptibility in the elderly. While muscle-resident satellite cells are responsible for all myogenic activity in physiological conditions and become senescent in old age, other progenitor cells such as mesoangioblasts do seem to contribute to muscle regeneration and repair after tissue damage. Similarly, fibro-adipogenic precursor cells seem to be key in the aberrant response that fills up the space left from atrophied muscle mass and which ends up with a dysfunctional muscle having vast areas of fatty infiltration and fibrosis. The complex interplay between these stem/progenitor cell types and their niches in normal and pathological conditions throughout life are the subjects of intense investigation. This eBook highlights recent developments on the role of stem cells in skeletal muscle function, both in prenatal and postnatal life, and their regulation by transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms. Additionally, it includes articles on interventions associated with exercise, pathological changes in neuromuscular diseases, and stem cell aging.

Ageing and Technology

Authors: ---
Book Series: Science Studies ISBN: 9783837629576 9783839429570 Year: Language: English
Publisher: transcript Verlag Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 101242
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-16 11:02:30
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The booming increase of the senior population has become a social phenomenon and a challenge to our societies, and technological advances have undoubtedly contributed to improve the lives of elderly citizens in numerous aspects. In current debates on technology, however, the »human factor« is often largely ignored. The ageing individual is rather seen as a malfunctioning machine whose deficiencies must be diagnosed or as a set of limitations to be overcome by means of technological devices. This volume aims at focusing on the perspective of human beings deriving from the development and use of technology: this change of perspective – taking the human being and not technology first – may help us to become more sensitive to the ambivalences involved in the interaction between humans and technology, as well as to adapt technologies to the people that created the need for its existence, thus contributing to improve the quality of life of senior citizens.

Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Ageing and Diseases

ISBN: 9783038422518 9783038422525 Year: Pages: XXVI, 516 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 07:37:51
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The past decade has witnessed an explosion of knowledge regarding how mitochondrial dysfunction may translate into ageing and disease phenotypes, as well as how it is modulated by genetic and lifestyle factors. Impairment of the mitochondria may be caused by mutations or deletions in nuclear or mitochondrial DNA. Hallmarks of mitochondrial dysfunction include decreased ATP production, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, swollen mitochondria, damaged cristae, increased oxidative stress, and decreased mitochondrial DNA copy number. In addition to energy production, mitochondria play an important role in regulating apoptosis, buffering calcium release, retrograde signaling to the nuclear genome, producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), participating in steroid synthesis, signaling to the immune system, as well as controlling the cell cycle and cell growth. Dysfunctional mitochondria have been implicated in ageing and in several diseases, many of which are age-related, including mitochondrial diseases, cancers, metabolic diseases and diabetes, inflammatory conditions, neuropathy, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s disease. Additionally, a possible link between mitochondrial metabolism and the ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome systems is emerging as a novel factor contributing to the progression of several human diseases. This special issue calls for original research, mini and full reviews, and perspectives that address the progress and current standing in the vast field of mitochondrial biology. These include, but are not limited to: ageingneurodegenerative diseasesmitochondrial diseasesmetabolic diseasesprotein homeostasiscell/retrograde signalingoxidative stresspaincancerimmune systemtherapies to counteract mitochondrial dysfunction

Nano- and Microcomposites for Electrical Engineering Applications

ISBN: 9783038422921 9783038422938 Year: Pages: XVI, 286 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-12-05 09:48:54
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In a dedicated Special Issue, the journal Polymers has compiled papers on the current trends and research directions within the preparation, characterization and application of polymer-based composite materials in electrical engineering applications. In recent times, this type of material has evolved to become one of the most thoroughly investigated materials, stimulated by the demand for the resource-efficient assembly of generators, transformers, communication devices, etc. Novel composites are to be used as insulating materials with high thermal conductivity and excellent temperature stability, through which premature ageing and degradation of devices shall be avoided or at least reduced. This Special Issue comprises twelve contributions by internationally renowned researchers; to mention Petru V. Nothinger (University Politehnica of Bucharest), Alun S. Vaughan (University of Southampton), Stanislaw M. Gubanski (Chalmers University of Technology), Michael Muhr (Graz University of Technology), Johan J. Smit (TU Delft), and Ulf W. Gedde (KTH Royal Institute of Technology) as prominent examples. The state-of-the-art research and technology of the area ‘micro- and nanocomposites for electrical engineering applications’ has been summarized in three review articles, while the current research trends and the development and characterization of novel materials have been described in eight original research articles. Stimulated by the vivid current interest in this topic, this Special Issue of Polymers has additionally been compiled in a book version.

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