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Polymer Reactor Modeling, Design and Monitoring

ISBN: 9783038422549 9783038422556 Year: Pages: X, 204 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-12-19 11:47:52
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Polymers range from synthetic plastics, such as polyacrylates, to natural biopolymers, such as proteins and DNA. The large molecular mass of polymers and our ability to manipulate their compositions and molecular structures have allowed for producing synthetic polymers with attractive properties. new polymers with remarkable characteristics are synthesized. Because of the huge production volume of commodity polymers, a little improvement in the operation of commodity-polymer processes can lead to significant economic gains. On the other hand, a little improvement in the quality of specialty polymers can lead to substantial increase in economic profits.

At the Crossroads: Lessons and Challenges in Computational Social Science

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450213 Year: Pages: 98 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-021-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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The interest of physicists in economic and social questions is not new: for over four decades, we have witnessed the emergence of what is called nowadays “sociophysics” and “econophysics”, vigorous and challenging areas within the wider “Interdisciplinary Physics”. With tools borrowed from Statistical Physics and Complexity, this new area of study have already made important contributions, which in turn have fostered the development of novel theoretical foundations in Social Science and Economics, via mathematical approaches, agent-based modelling and numerical simulations. From these foundations, Computational Social Science has grown to incorporate as well the empirical component —aided by the recent data deluge from the Web 2.0 and 3.0—, closing in this way the experiment-theory cycle in the best tradition of Physics.

Perusal of the Finite Element Method

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ISBN: 9789535128199 9789535128205 9789535141389 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.5772/62611 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 09:47:10

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The finite element method (FEM) is a numerical technique for finding approximate solutions to different numerical problems. The practical applications of FEM are known as finite element analysis (FEA). FEA is a good choice for analyzing problems over complicated domains. The first three chapters of this book contribute to the development of new FE techniques by examining a few key hurdles of the FEM and proposing techniques to mitigate them. The next four chapters focus on the close connection between the development of a new technique and its implementation. Current state-of-the-art software packages for FEA allow the construction, refinement, and optimization of entire designs before manufacturing. This is convincingly demonstrated in the last three chapters of the book with examples from the field of biomechanical engineering. This book presents a current research by highlighting the vitality and potential of the finite elements for the future development of more efficient numerical techniques, new areas of application, and FEA's important role in practical engineering.

Quantum Structures in Cognitive and Social Science

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198764 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-876-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Traditional approaches to cognitive psychology correspond with a classical view of logic and probability theory. More specifically, one typically assumes that cognitive processes of human thought are founded on the Boolean structures of classical logic, while the probabilistic aspects of these processes are based on the Kolmogorovian structures of classical probability theory. However, growing experimental evidence indicates that the models founded on classical structures systematically fail when human decisions are at stake. These experimental deviations from classical behavior have been called `paradoxes’, `fallacies’, `effects’ or `contradictions’, depending on the specific situation where they appear. But, they involve a broad spectrum of cognitive and social science domains, ranging from conceptual combination to decision making under uncertainty, behavioral economics, and linguistics. This situation has constituted a serious drawback to the development of various disciplines, like cognitive science, linguistics, artificial intelligence, economic modeling and behavioral finance. A different approach to cognitive psychology, initiated two decades ago, has meanwhile matured into a new domain of research, called ‘quantum cognition’. Its main feature is the use of the mathematical formalism of quantum theory as modeling tool for these cognitive situations where traditional classically based approaches fail. Quantum cognition has recently attracted the interest of important journals and editing houses, academic and funding institutions, popular science and media. Specifically, within a quantum cognition approach, one assumes that human decisions do not necessarily obey the rules of Boolean logic and Kolmogorovian probability, and can on the contrary be modeled by the quantum-mechanical formalism. Different concrete quantum-theoretic models have meanwhile been developed that successfully represent the cognitive situations that are classically problematical, by explaining observed deviations from classicality in terms of genuine quantum effects, such as `contextuality’, `emergence’, `interference’, `superposition’, `entanglement’ and `indistinguishability’. In addition, the validity of these quantum models is convincingly confirmed by new experimental tests. We also stress that, since the use of a quantum-theoretic framework is mainly for modeling purposes, the identification of quantum structures in cognitive processes does not presuppose (without being incompatible with it) the existence of microscopic quantum processes in the human brain. In this Research Topic, we review the major achievements that have been obtained in quantum cognition, by providing an accurate picture of the state-of-the-art of this emerging discipline. Our overview does not pretend to be either complete or exhaustive. But, we aim to introduce psychologists and social scientists to this challenging new research area, encouraging them, at the same time, to consider its promising results. It is our opinion that, if continuous progress in this domain can be realized, quantum cognition can constitute an important breakthrough in cognitive psychology, and potentially open the way towards a new scientific paradigm in social science.

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