Search results: Found 7

Listing 1 - 7 of 7
Sort by
Spatial and non-spatial aspects of neglect

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195848 Year: Pages: 151 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-584-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Neglect is one of the most impressive neuropsychological disorder, for both its theoretical and clinical relevance. Besides being very common and disabling, it is highly informative for understanding normal cognitive functioning. The hallmark of neglect is the failure to attend to the contralesional hemispace. However, several studies have recently highlighted that additional deficits, not attributable to a spatial bias, are associated to the impaired contralesional hemispace processing. Moreover, manifestations of neglect tend to be particularly heterogeneous and often dissociate according to the spatial domain being investigated (e.g., body space, space within reaching, space beyond reaching, imaginal space). Heterogeneity in neglect patients also means that dissociations across different tasks in a single patient are more the rule than the exception. Evidence suggests that some of these dissociations can be readily explained by taking into account the amount of available attentional resources as a major determinant for the presence and the severity of neglect. There is no doubt that neglect patients provide a wealth of information about the functioning of systems subserving attentional orienting and spatial processing. Moreover, their performance also show that some non-spatial deficits are tightly coupled with more classic contralesional spatial deficits. It seems however still unclear to what extent these non-spatial deficits are an intrinsic characteristic of neglect or whether they are to be considered unspecific effects of the often massive brain lesions suffered by the patients. From the clinical point of view, neglect is a disorder that dramatically affects patients and their caregivers, because it severely limits the individuals’ autonomy and motor recovery after brain damage. For these reasons neglect is a disorder that is worth rehabilitating. To be effective, neglect rehabilitation should be based on the knowledge of what cognitive aspects are impaired and it should be focused on improving daily-life performance. For these reasons, it is also important to detect and quantify subtle forms of neglect.

Perspective Taking: Building a neurocognitive framework for integrating the "social" and the "spatial"

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194179 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-417-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Background: Interacting with other people involves spatial awareness of one’s own body and the other’s body and viewpoint. In the past, social cognition has focused largely on belief reasoning, which is abstracted away from spatial and bodily representations, while there is a strong tradition of work on spatial and object representation which does not consider social interactions. These two domains have flourished independently. A small but growing body of research examines how awareness of space and body relates to the ability to interpret and interact with others. This also builds on the growing awareness that many cognitive processes are embodied, which could be of relevance for the integration of the social and spatial domains: Online mental transformations of spatial representations have been shown to rely on simulated body movements and various aspects of social interaction have been related to the simulation of a conspecific’s behaviour within the observer’s bodily repertoire. Both dimensions of embodied transformations or mappings seem to serve the purpose of establishing alignment between the observer and a target. In spatial cognition research the target is spatially defined as a particular viewpoint or frame of reference (FOR), yet, in social interaction research another viewpoint is occupied by another’s mind, which crucially requires perspective taking in the sense of considering what another person experiences from a different viewpoint. Perspective taking has been studied in different ways within developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, psycholinguistics, neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience over the last few decades, yet, integrative approaches for channelling all information into a unified account of perspective taking and viewpoint transformations have not been presented so far. Aims: This Research Topic aims to bring together the social and the spatial, and to highlight findings and methods which can unify research across areas. In particular, the topic aims to advance our current theories and set the stage for future developments of the field by clarifying and linking theoretical concepts across disciplines. Scope: The focus of this Research Topic is on the SPATIAL and the SOCIAL, and we anticipate that all submissions will touch on both aspects and will explicitly attempt to bridge conceptual gaps. Social questions could include questions of how people judge another person’s viewpoint or spatial capacities, or how they imagine themselves from different points of view. Spatial questions could include consideration of different physical configurations of the body and the arrangement of different viewpoints, including mental rotation of objects or viewpoints that have social relevance. Questions could also relate to how individual differences (in personality, sex, development, culture, species etc.) influence or determine social and spatial perspective judgements. Many different methods can be used to explore perspective taking, including mental chronometry, behavioural tasks, EEG/MEG and fMRI, child development, neuropsychological patients, virtual reality and more. Bringing together results and approaches from these different domains is a key aim of this Research Topic. We welcome submissions of experimental papers, reviews and theory papers which cover these topics.

Spatial memory - a unique window into healthy and pathological ageing

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193868 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-386-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The global population aged over 60 is set to rise dramatically in the coming decades. In many countries, the older population now faces the prospect of spending a quarter of their lives aged over 65, and a significant proportion will have to cope with cognitive decline associated with normal ageing or with dementia disorders. Given that these fundamental demographic changes will pose a significant challenge to health care systems, a detailed understanding of age-related cognitive and neurobiological changes is essential in helping elderly populations maintain cognitive performance. In addition, developing sensitive biomarkers to identify those at risk of developing dementia is crucial for early and effective interventions. To make inferences about the ageing process from the animal model back to the human, rigorous behavioral paradigms must be used to ensure that the same function is being examined across species. Given that similar navigational paradigms can easily be applied to humans and animals, recent years have seen an expansion of studies attempting to bridge the gap between age-related changes in animal and human spatial cognition. These studies begin to suggest that disruptions in spatial computations are among the earliest indicators of impending cognitive decline. In addition, although many animal studies have identified pathological mechanisms with paradigms involving spatial navigation, these mechanisms support many nonspatial cognitive functions as well. As a consequence, a successful characterization of how spatial processing changes in the ageing brain could reveal fundamental effects of cognitive ageing that could inform about general mechanisms underlying decline in perception, mnemonic processing and multisensory integration.

Numerical Development - From cognitive functions to neural underpinnings

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194247 Year: Pages: 281 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-424-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Living at the beginning of the 21st century requires being numerate, because numerical abilities are not only essential for life prospects of individuals but also for economic interests of post-industrial knowledge societies. Thus, numerical development is at the core of both individual as well as societal interests. There is the notion that we are already born with a very basic ability to deal with small numerosities. Yet, this often called “number sense” seems to be very restricted, approximate, and driven by perceptual constraints. During our numerical development in formal (e.g., school) but also informal contexts (e.g., family, street) we acquire culturally developed abstract symbol systems to represent exact numerosities – in particular number words and Arabic digits – refining our numerical capabilities. In recent years, numerical development has gained increasing research interest documented in a growing number of behavioural, neuro-scientific, educational, cross-cultural, and neuropsychological studies addressing this issue. Additionally, our understanding of how numerical competencies develop has also benefitted considerably from the advent of different neuro-imaging techniques allowing for an evaluation of developmental changes in the human brain. In sum, we are now starting to put together a more and more coherent picture of how numerical competencies develop and how this development is associated with neural changes as well. In the end, this knowledge might also lead to a better understanding of the reasons for atypical numerical development which often has grieve consequences for those who suffer from developmental dyscalculia or mathematics learning disabilities. Therefore, this Research Topic deals with all aspects of numerical development: findings from behavioural performance to underlying neural substrates, from cross-sectional to longitudinal evaluations, from healthy to clinical populations. To this end, we included empirical contributions using different experimental methodologies, but also theoretical contributions, review articles, or opinion papers.

The CA3 region of the hippocampus: how is it? what is it for? how does it do it?

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196319 Year: Pages: 165 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-631-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The aim of this special topic is to bring together experts on the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the wiring properties of the CA3 hippocampal microcircuit in both physiological and pathological conditions, synaptic plasticity, behavior and cognition.We will particularly emphasize the dual glutamatergic and GABAergic phenotype of MF-CA3 synapses at early developmental stages and the steps that regulate the integration of newly generated neurons into the adult dentate gyrus-CA3 circuit.

Taking a hands-on approach: Current perspectives on the effect of hand position on vision

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196647 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-664-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

An exciting new line of research that investigates the impact of one’s own hands on visual processing has flourished in the past several years. Specifically, several studies have demonstrated that objects near the hands receive prioritized attention, enhanced perceptual sensitivity, altered figure-ground assignment, prolonged and detail-oriented processing, and improved visual working memory. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the visual system reveals a new pattern of processing when one's hands are in proximity of viewed objects. Therefore, the vast majority of studies on visual processing, in which one's hands are kept away from the stimuli, may constitute but one side of a more complex story of the inner workings of the visual system. With several consistent behavioral demonstrations of hand-altered vision now in the literature, the present challenge facing this growing field, and the aim of this Research Topic, is four-pronged: 1) Isolate and elucidate the underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms of hand-altered vision; 2) Map the parameters and conditions of hand-nearness that permit/prevent the onset or maintenance of hand-altered vision; 3) Determine the consequences of hand-altered vision for higher-level cognition and assess its applied potential (e.g., as a neuropsychological intervention); and, 4) Present a cohesive and predictive theoretical account of hand-altered vision. We welcome submissions that fit into any one (or a combination) of the above domains. For behavioral research, we particularly encourage submissions that are relevant to the advancement of our understanding of the neural mechanisms of hand-altered vision (e.g., demonstrations that might corroborate or disconfirm proposed neural systems).

Varietates topiorum

Author:
ISBN: 9783851611168 Year: Pages: 673 DOI: 10.26530/oapen_594190 Language: German
Publisher: Phoibos Verlag Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 71
Subject: Arts in general
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-23 11:01:13
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The purpose and subject of this dissertation is an analysis in space-representation and perspective drawing of Roman and Campanian landscape painting to develop and reconstruct the modes of landscape recognition and spatial perception structures in the late Republic and early Empire. This aim is realized with the help of interdisciplinary methods, as the possibilities, limits and developments of perspective representation are studied on the basis of descriptive geometry, its terminology and theoretical background.

Listing 1 - 7 of 7
Sort by
Narrow your search

Publisher

Frontiers Media SA (6)

Phoibos Verlag (1)


License

CC by (6)

CC by-nc-nd (1)


Language

english (6)

german (1)


Year
From To Submit

2015 (7)