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High Density Lipoproteins: From Biological Understanding to Clinical Exploitation

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Book Series: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology ISSN: 01712004 ISBN: 9783319096643 9783319096650 Year: Volume: 224 Pages: 694 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-09665-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Manufactures --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- Chemical Technology --- Business and Management --- Biotechnology --- Therapeutics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-07-20 15:18:00
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n this Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology on “High Density Lipoproteins – from biological understanding to clinical exploitation” contributing authors (members of COST Action BM0904/HDLnet) summarize in more than 20 chapters our current knowledge on the structure, function, metabolism and regulation of HDL in health and several diseases as well as the status of past and ongoing attempts of therapeutic exploitation.The book is of interest to researchers in academia and industry focusing on lipoprotein metabolism, cardiovascular diseases and immunology as well as clinical pharmacologists, cardiologists, diabetologists, nephrologists and other clinicians interested in metabolic or inflammatory diseases.

Toxicology Studies - Cells, Drugs and Environment

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ISBN: 9789535121404 9789535142201 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.5772/58714 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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The increased exposure to toxins, toxicants and novel drugs has promoted toxicology to become one of the most important areas of research with emerging innovative toxicity testing protocols, techniques, and regulation being placed. Since the bioactivation of many toxins and toxicants and its consequences on human health are not clearly known, this book offers a quick overview of cellular toxicology through the cell, drug and environmental toxicity. This book does not strive to be comprehensive but instead offers a quick overview of principle aspects of toxins and toxicants in order to familiarize the key principles of toxicology. The book is divided into three main sections,; the first one discusses the role of mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and mitochondrial drug development. The second and third sections bring light to forensic toxicology and drug poisoning followed by environmental toxicity.

Drug Discovery and Development - From Molecules to Medicine

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789535121282 9789535142225 Year: Pages: 330 DOI: 10.5772/58659 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 09:47:09

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It is very important for scientists all over the globe to enhance drug discovery research for better human health. This book demonstrates that various expertise are essential for drug discovery including synthetic or natural drugs, clinical pharmacology, receptor identification, drug metabolism, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic research. The following 5 sections cover diverse chapter topics in drug discovery: Natural Products as Sources of Leading Molecules in Drug Discovery; Oncology and Drug Discovery; Receptors Involvement in Drug Discovery; Management and Development of Drugs against Infectious Diseases; Advanced Methodology.

Making Medicines in Africa: The Political Economy of Industrializing for Local Health

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9781137571335 9781137546470 Year: Pages: 360 DOI: 10.1057/9781137546470 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Political Science --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-16 18:20:38
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This book is open access under a CC-BY license. The importance of the pharmaceutical industry in Sub-Saharan Africa, its claim to policy priority, is rooted in the vast unmet health needs of the sub-continent. Making Medicines in Africa is a collective endeavour, by a group of contributors with a strong African and more broadly Southern presence, to find ways to link technological development, investment and industrial growth in pharmaceuticals to improve access to essential good quality medicines, as part of moving towards universal access to competent health care in Africa. The authors aim to shift the emphasis in international debate and initiatives towards sustained Africa-based and African-led initiatives to tackle this huge challenge. Without the technological, industrial, intellectual, organisational and research-related capabilities associated with competent pharmaceutical production, and without policies that pull the industrial sectors towards serving local health needs, the African sub-continent cannot generate the resources to tackle its populations' needs and demands.

Neuropsychopharmacology of Psychosis: Relation of Brain Signals, Cognition and Chemistry

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193356 Year: Pages: 276 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-335-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychiatry --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Previous research over the past decades has identified diverse neurobiological underpinnings of psychosis. In particular, by combining a variety of different neuroimaging modalities, it has been shown that psychotic states and the actual transition phase from a clinical high-risk state to established psychosis is characterized by structural, functional and neurochemical changes across different brain regions.Further evidence revealed that maybe not only focal brain abnormalities are characteristic for psychosis but specifically also an abnormal functional integration among various brain areas. Some evidence also suggests that dysfunctional brain connectivity proceeds during the development of psychosis when subjects perform a cognitive task. Notably, altered brain connectivity during cognitive challenges was often found to be associated with psychopathological measures, suggesting a mechanistic relation between functional network integrity and the clinical expression of psychosis.Several works proposed that disordered brain connectivity in psychosis results from abnormal N-methyl- D -aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic plasticity, which can be mediated by other neurotransmitter systems such as dopamine or serotonin. Specific chemically mediated changes in synaptic plasticity may contribute to abnormal functional integration among brain regions and in consequence to impaired learning performances and inferences. Model-based connectivity investigations on synaptic signalling demonstrated for example that manipulation of the NMDA or α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor system altered synaptic plasticity in healthy volunteers, which was predictive for subjects’ cognitive performance and psychopathology. In patients with psychosis, the activity in the prefrontal cortex during the processing of prediction errors, a specific form of learning, which is conveyed via synaptic connections, was linked with individuals’ formation of delusions. These results fit well with many works suggesting that psychotic symptoms or also drug-induced psychosis-like experiences can be explained by disturbances within a hierarchically organized neuronal network, leading to maladaptive integrations of new incoming evidence and thereby to false formations of prediction errors and false beliefs.In this research topic, we like to cover the most recent neurobiological correlates for early stage psychosis and in particular for the prediction of psychosis by using different neurophysiological measures (e.g. structural and functional MRI, EEG, DTI or PET). Studies exploring effective connectivity or complex brain networks such as small-world properties with techniques like dynamic causal modelling, structural equation modelling, or graph theory analysis are highly appreciated. Very welcome are studies proving a link between clinical features such as psychopathology and cognition, brain signals, and chemistry (also in regard of antipsychotic treatments or substance-induced psychotic states). Moreover, environmental factors that may influence psychosis onset or its’ developmental processes will be brought together with a diversity of different research modalities. We also collect critical reviews, mini-reviews or theoretical reflections from leading international researcher and clinicians in this field. The purpose of our research topic is intended to provide a state-of-the-art cognitive perspective to consider developing psychosis, which might shed more lights into the pathophysiological and neurobiological mechanisms of psychosis.

Neural and Synaptic Defects in Autism Spectrum Disorders

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196289 Year: Pages: 285 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-628-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of genetically and clinically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impaired reciprocal social interactions and communication, and restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. Studies in genetics, neurobiology and systems biology are providing insights into the pathogenesis of ASDs. Investigation of neural and synaptic defects in ASDs not only sheds light on the molecular and cellular mechanisms that govern the function of the central nervous system, but may lead to the discovery of potential therapeutic targets for autism and other cognitive disorders. Our Research Topic which constitutes this e-book documents the recent development and ideas in the study of pathogenesis and treatment of ASDs, with an emphasis on syndromic disorders such as fragile X and Rett syndromes. In addition, model systems and methodological approaches with translational relevance to autism are covered herein. We hope that the Research Topic will enhance the global knowledge base in the autism research community and foster new research directions in autism related biology.

The Emerging Discipline of Quantitative Systems Pharmacology

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196425 Year: Pages: 97 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-642-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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In 2011, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), in collaboration with leaders from the pharmaceutical industry and the academic community, published a white paper describing the emerging discipline of Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP), and recommended the establishment of NIH-supported interdisciplinary research and training programs for QSP. QSP is still in its infancy, but has tremendous potential to change the way we approach biomedical research. QSP is really the integration of two disciplines that have been increasingly useful in biomedical research; “Systems Biology” and “Quantitative Pharmacology”. Systems Biology is the field of biomedical research that seeks to understand the relationships between genes and biologically active molecules to develop qualitative models of these systems; and Quantitative Pharmacology is the field of biomedical research that seeks to use computer aided modeling and simulation to increase our understanding of the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of drugs, and to aid in the design of pre-clinical and clinical experiments. The purpose of QSP modeling is to develop quantitative computer models of biological systems and disease processes, and the effects of drug PK and PD on those systems. QSP models allow testing of numerous potential experiments “in-silico” to eliminate those associated with a low probability of success, avoiding the potential costs of evaluating all of those failed experiments in the real world. At the same time, QSP models allow us to develop our understanding of the interaction between drugs and biological systems in a more systematic and rigorous manner. As the need to be more cost-efficient in the use of research funding increases, biomedical researchers will be required to gain the maximum insight from each experiment that is conducted. This need is even more acute in the pharmaceutical industry, where there is tremendous competition to develop innovative therapies in a highly regulated environment, combined with very high research and development (R&D) costs for bringing new drugs to market (~$1.3 billion/drug). Analogous modeling & simulation approaches have been successfully integrated into other disciplines to improve the fundamental understanding of the science and to improve the efficiency of R&D (e.g., physics, engineering, economics, etc.). The biomedical research community has been slow to integrate computer aided modeling & simulation for many reasons: including the perception that biology and pharmacology are “too complex” and “too variable” to be modeled with mathematical equations; a lack of adequate graduate training programs; and the lack of support from government agencies that fund biomedical research. However, there is an active community of researchers in the pharmaceutical industry, the academic community, and government agencies that develop QSP and quantitative systems biology models and apply them both to better characterize and predict drug pharmacology and disease processes; as well as to improve efficiency and productivity in pharmaceutical R&D.

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