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A COPD Primer

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783110468007 9783110468113 Year: Pages: 412 DOI: 10.1515/9783110468007 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-07 14:19:43
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In 2012 we received a grant from the Veterans Health Administration Office of Specialty Care entitled, “Patient-Centered Model for the Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.” The grant’s goals were to enhance the recognition and diagnosis of COPD and implement a Patient-Centered Model for the Management of COPD. As the work on that proposal progressed, we realized that providers did not have an up-to-date, comprehensive, easily read, “how to” manual for the management of COPD despite all the advances in COPD care that have occurred over the past 5 years. Consensus documents such as the VA-DOD Guidelines were abbreviated summaries that were rarely used. From those discussions, the concept for this volume, a COPD Primer, developed. The goal was to develop a practical book that concisely presented COPD to providers with sufficient background and explanation of the physiologic and scientific rationale for various management strategies without becoming an esoteric academic work. We hope that this COPD Primer has achieved that goal and will be a useful, practical text for practitioners and medical trainees alike.The COPD Primer begins with an examination of what COPD is; it is really a syndrome, a constellation of historical features and clinical, physiologic, and radiographic findings. However, those elements come together in many different ways to create multiple different COPD phenotypes that are only now being recognized and used to define specific management strategies. COPD research has progressed beyond the simple classification of “blue bloaters” and “pink puffers.” Next, the epidemiology and economic consequences of COPD are reviewed. Bill Eschenbacher presents an approach to the patient with respiratory symptoms with detailed discussions of pulmonary function testing and how airflow limitation/obstruction is identified by spirometry and the use of lung imaging to identify individuals with COPD. Michael Borchers and Gregory Motz summarize current evidence implicating genetics, proteolytic imbalance, oxidative stress, inflammation, occupational and environmental exposures, and innate and adaptive immune function in the pathogenesis of COPD and the implication of these findings to future treatments. The single most important intervention in the prevention and treatment of COPD is smoking cessation. Shari Altum, Katherine Butler, and Rachel Juran present a practical approach to smoking cessation utilizing motivational interviewing in combination with pharmacologic interventions. Then, they expand upon these concepts to provide practitioners with convenient, realistic suggestions to encourage patient self-management in all aspects of COPD care and overall health. Ahsan Zafar reviews the natural history, recently described COPD phenotypes, and gender differences that clearly illustrate the broad spectrum of disease that comprises the term, COPD. The cover illustration highlights Dr. Zafar’s creative and artistic talents. The extensive nonpulmonary aspects of COPD are reviewed by Ralph Panos in an examination of COPD’s multi-organ manifestations. Next, the effect of COPD on sleep and the overlap syndrome, the concurrence of COPD and obstructive sleep apnea, and its consequences are presented. Jean Elwing examines the effect of COPD on the pulmonary vasculature with a detailed discussion of the evaluation and management of pulmonary hypertension associated with COPD. COPD’s effects on psychosocial functioning and familial interactions are presented by Mary Panos and Ralph Panos.The focus of the Primer then shifts from manifestations to treatment with a discussion of stable COPD management. With the current plethora of devices for delivering respiratory medications, it is difficult for both patients and providers to sustain knowledge of their proper use. Aaron Mulhall presents a practical guide to correct inhaler use that reviews all the current devices. Folarin Sogbetun then reviews the management of outpatient COPD exacerbations and Nishant Gupta discusses the approach to the patient hospitalized with COPD. Because patients with COPD often see multiple subspecialty physicians in addition to their primary care providers, interdisciplinary communication and coordination of care is essential for their management; Sara Krzywkowski-Mohn reviews the interactions between primary and specialty care for the patient with COPD with suggestions for improved communication and care coordination. Finally, advance care planning including palliative care and hospice is reviewed with a discussion of how end stage COPD affects not only the patient but also their family and social network.This COPD Primer incorporates the knowledge that we have learned over the past several years during the development and implementation of a patient-centered model for the management of COPD. It was written with the explicit goal of assisting both the practicing provider and medical trainee in the care of patients with COPD.

Para-States and Medical Science: Making African Global Health

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Book Series: Critical Global Health: Evidence, Efficacy, Ethnography ISBN: 9780822357490 Year: Pages: 376 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_530530 Language: English
Publisher: Duke University Press Grant: Wellcome Trust - 077430, 081507
Subject: Public Health --- Medicine (General) --- Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2015-03-20 11:01:17
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In Para-States and Medical Science, P. Wenzel Geissler and the contributors examine how medicine and public health in Africa have been transformed as a result of economic and political liberalization and globalization, intertwined with epidemiological and technological changes. The resulting fragmented medical science landscape is shaped and sustained by transnational flows of expertise and resources. NGOs, universities, pharmaceutical companies and other nonstate actors now play a significant role in medical research and treatment. But as the contributors to this volume argue, these groups have not supplanted the primacy of the nation-state in Africa. Although not necessarily stable or responsive, national governments remain crucial in medical care, both as employers of health care professionals and as sources of regulation, access, and – albeit sometimes counterintuitively - trust for their people. “The state” has morphed into the “para-state” — not a monolithic and predictable source of sovereignty and governance, but a shifting, and at times ephemeral, figure. Tracing the emergence of the “global health” paradigm in Africa in the treatment of HIV, malaria, and leprosy, this book challenges familiar notions of African statehood as weak or illegitimate by elaborating complex new frameworks of governmentality that can be simultaneously functioning and dysfunctional.

Keywords

africa --- medicine --- public health

Onkologie für die Palliativmedizin

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783863952297 Year: DOI: 10.17875/gup2015-850 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-21 11:02:24
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Über 90% der in der spezialisierten Palliativversorgung betreuten Patienten leiden an einer Krebserkrankung. Sowohl der Impuls einer frühzeitigen, bedürfnisorientierten palliativmedizinischen Mitbehandlung als auch die erheblichen Weiterentwicklungen einer (zunehmend molekular definierten) Onkologie erfordern, dass auch die in der Palliativversorgung Tätigen ein Grundverständnis von Tumorbiologie, von modernen onkologischen Therapiekonzepten und von supportivtherapeutischen Möglichkeiten haben. Dieses Buch möchte dieses Grundverständnis von Krebs und onkologischer Behandlung in einer auch für Nicht-Onkologen verständlichen Form vermitteln und richtet sich vor allem an jene, die in der palliativmedizinischen Betreuung krebskranker Menschen involviert sind: Palliativärzte, Palliativpflegende, aber auch Haus- und Fachärzte, Physiotherapeuten, Seelsorger, Psychotherapeuten und viele mehr. Es will kein Lehrbuch der Onkologie ersetzen, sondern eine praxisorientierte, therapie- und versorgungsrelevante Hilfestellung im (palliativ-)medizinischen Arbeitsalltag sein – dort, wo es um eine umfassende Unterstützung von Krebspatienten geht. Das Buch ist ein Projekt der „AG Interdisziplinäre Onkologie“ der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Palliativmedizin (DGP).

Keywords

cancer --- medicine --- therapy

The Territory of Medical Research: Experimentation in Africa’s Smallest State (Book chapter)

Book title: Para-States and Medical Science: Making African Global Health

Author:
Book Series: Critical Global Health: Evidence, Efficacy, Ethnography ISBN: 9780822357353 9780822357490 Year: Pages: 376 Language: English
Publisher: Duke University Press Grant: Wellcome Trust - 077430, 081507
Subject: Public Health --- Medicine (General) --- Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 11:01:04
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In Para-States and Medical Science, P. Wenzel Geissler and the contributors examine how medicine and public health in Africa have been transformed as a result of economic and political liberalization and globalization, intertwined with epidemiological and technological changes. The resulting fragmented medical science landscape is shaped and sustained by transnational flows of expertise and resources. NGOs, universities, pharmaceutical companies and other nonstate actors now play a significant role in medical research and treatment. But as the contributors to this volume argue, these groups have not supplanted the primacy of the nation-state in Africa. Although not necessarily stable or responsive, national governments remain crucial in medical care, both as employers of health care professionals and as sources of regulation, access, and – albeit sometimes counterintuitively - trust for their people. “The state” has morphed into the “para-state” — not a monolithic and predictable source of sovereignty and governance, but a shifting, and at times ephemeral, figure. Tracing the emergence of the “global health” paradigm in Africa in the treatment of HIV, malaria, and leprosy, this book challenges familiar notions of African statehood as weak or illegitimate by elaborating complex new frameworks of governmentality that can be simultaneously functioning and dysfunctional.

Keywords

africa --- medicine --- public health

Introduction: A Life Science in Its African Para-State (Book chapter)

Book title: Para-States and Medical Science: Making African Global Health

Author:
Book Series: Critical Global Health: Evidence, Efficacy, Ethnography ISBN: 9780822357353 9780822357490 Year: Pages: 376 Language: English
Publisher: Duke University Press Grant: Wellcome Trust - 077430, 081507
Subject: Public Health --- Medicine (General) --- Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 11:01:04
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Abstract

In Para-States and Medical Science, P. Wenzel Geissler and the contributors examine how medicine and public health in Africa have been transformed as a result of economic and political liberalization and globalization, intertwined with epidemiological and technological changes. The resulting fragmented medical science landscape is shaped and sustained by transnational flows of expertise and resources. NGOs, universities, pharmaceutical companies and other nonstate actors now play a significant role in medical research and treatment. But as the contributors to this volume argue, these groups have not supplanted the primacy of the nation-state in Africa. Although not necessarily stable or responsive, national governments remain crucial in medical care, both as employers of health care professionals and as sources of regulation, access, and – albeit sometimes counterintuitively - trust for their people. “The state” has morphed into the “para-state” — not a monolithic and predictable source of sovereignty and governance, but a shifting, and at times ephemeral, figure. Tracing the emergence of the “global health” paradigm in Africa in the treatment of HIV, malaria, and leprosy, this book challenges familiar notions of African statehood as weak or illegitimate by elaborating complex new frameworks of governmentality that can be simultaneously functioning and dysfunctional.

Keywords

africa --- medicine --- public health

What Future Remains? Remembering an African Place of Science (Book chapter)

Book title: Para-States and Medical Science: Making African Global Health

Author:
Book Series: Critical Global Health: Evidence, Efficacy, Ethnography ISBN: 9780822357353 9780822357490 Year: Pages: 376 Language: English
Publisher: Duke University Press Grant: Wellcome Trust - 077430, 081507
Subject: Public Health --- Medicine (General) --- Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 11:01:04
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Abstract

In Para-States and Medical Science, P. Wenzel Geissler and the contributors examine how medicine and public health in Africa have been transformed as a result of economic and political liberalization and globalization, intertwined with epidemiological and technological changes. The resulting fragmented medical science landscape is shaped and sustained by transnational flows of expertise and resources. NGOs, universities, pharmaceutical companies and other nonstate actors now play a significant role in medical research and treatment. But as the contributors to this volume argue, these groups have not supplanted the primacy of the nation-state in Africa. Although not necessarily stable or responsive, national governments remain crucial in medical care, both as employers of health care professionals and as sources of regulation, access, and – albeit sometimes counterintuitively - trust for their people. “The state” has morphed into the “para-state” — not a monolithic and predictable source of sovereignty and governance, but a shifting, and at times ephemeral, figure. Tracing the emergence of the “global health” paradigm in Africa in the treatment of HIV, malaria, and leprosy, this book challenges familiar notions of African statehood as weak or illegitimate by elaborating complex new frameworks of governmentality that can be simultaneously functioning and dysfunctional.

Keywords

africa --- medicine --- public health

Muscle Cell and Tissue

Author:
Book Series: 2015-09-02 ISBN: 9789535121565 9789535142188 Year: Pages: 486 DOI: 10.5772/59347 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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In order to complete tissue regeneration, various cells such as neuronal, skeletal, smooth, endothelial, and immune (e.g., macrophage) interact smoothly with each other. This book, Muscle Cells and Tissues, offers a wide range of topics such as stem cells, cell culture, biomaterials, epigenetics, therapeutics, and the creation of tissues and organs. Novel applications for cell and tissue engineering including cell therapy, tissue models, and disease pathology modeling are discussed. The book also deals with the functional role of autophagy in modulating muscle homeostasis and molecular mechanism regulating skeletal muscle mass. The chapters can be interesting for graduate students, postdocs, teachers, physicians, and for executives in biotech and pharmaceutical companies, as well as researchers in the fields of molecular biology and regenerative medicine.

Innovative Medicine: Basic Research and Development

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9784431556503 9784431556510 Year: Pages: 339 DOI: 10.1007/978-4-431-55651-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-30 12:46:49
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This book is devoted to innovative medicine, comprising the proceedings of the Uehara Memorial Foundation Symposium 2014. It remains extremely rare for the findings of basic research to be developed into clinical applications, and it takes a long time for the process to be achieved. The task of advancing the development of basic research into clinical reality lies with translational science, yet the field seems to struggle to find a way to move forward. To create innovative medical technology, many steps need to be taken: development and analysis of optimal animal models of human diseases, elucidation of genomic and epidemiological data, and establishment of “proof of concept”. There is also considerable demand for progress in drug research, new surgical procedures, and new clinical devices and equipment. While the original research target may be rare diseases, it is also important to apply those findings more broadly to common diseases. The book covers a wide range of topics and is organized into three complementary parts. The first part is basic research for innovative medicine, the second is translational research for innovative medicine, and the third is new technology for innovative medicine. This book helps to understand innovative medicine and to make progress in its realization.

The Non-Thrombotic Role of Platelets in Health and Disease

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789535122081 9789535142126 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.5772/58357 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Platelets play a key role in thrombosis and haemostasis. However recent evidence clearly demonstrates that the functional role of platelets extends to many other processes in the body. With an internationally recognised list of contributing authors, The Non-Thrombotic Role of Platelets in Health and Disease, is a unique and definitive source of state-of-the-art knowledge about the additional role of platelets outside thrombosis and haemostasis. The intended audience for The Non-Thrombotic Role of Platelets in Health and Disease includes platelet biologists, microbiologists, immunologists, haematologists, oncologists, respiratory physicians, cardiologists, neurobiologists, tissue engineers, as well as students and fellows in these areas.

Seminars in Dysphagia

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789535121510 9789535142171 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.5772/58665 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Otorhinolaryngology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 09:47:09

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Seminars in Dysphagia provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary issues in the field of dysphagia assessment, treatment and management in diverse subject populations. Expert views are shared by international clinical experts from different medical and allied health fields. This book contains an introductory chapter on the anatomical structures and physiology processes that underpin dysphagia and discusses the effects of polypharmacy and ageing on deglutition. Contemporary practices of functional assessment of swallowing and the endoscopic assessment for both oropharyngeal and esophageal dysphagia are reviewed. Both the nutritional support and decision making in oral route are described and the impact of dysphagia on carers and family when managing dysphagia. Several chapters are dedicated to outlining the manifestation and consequences of dysphagia in specific populations, including persons with Parkinsons disease, dystonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and mixed connective tissue disease.

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