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Ancient Jewish Prayers and Emotions. Emotions associated with Jewish prayer in and around the Second Temple period

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Book Series: Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature Studies ISSN: 1865-1666 ISBN: 9783110369083 Year: Volume: 26 Pages: 417 DOI: 10.1515/9783110369083 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Religion
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-14 18:42:56
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This collection of essaysoffers ananalysis of central texts in Greek, Hebrew and Aramaic relating to emotions within literary prayers. Their discussions touch upon such diverse topics as relations with God, exegesis, education, prophecy, linguistic expression, feminism, happiness, grief, cult, suicide, non-Jews, Hellenism, Qumran and Jerusalem. The articles contribute to a scientific understanding of early Rabbinic and Christian ideas.

The Well-Being of Children. Philosophical and Social Scientific Approaches

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ISBN: 9783110450521 9783110450644 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.1515/9783110450521 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Social Sciences --- History --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-06 16:33:34
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This volume explores the questions related to the theory, practice, and policy of the well-being and well-becoming of children. It does so in a truly interdisciplinary way with a focus on the social sciences and philosophy, giving therefore justice to the growing insight that studying and promoting the well-being of children has a strong ethical component. It is dependent on the questions of good life, its conditions and cannot be separated from the concept of social justice and moral entitlements of children and their families. In this book, philosophers and social scientists, in close dialogue, shed light on some of the most challenging matters involved.

Language and Cognition

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196272 Year: Pages: 125 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-627-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Interaction between language and cognition remains an unsolved scientific problem. What are the differences in neural mechanisms of language and cognition? Why do children acquire language by the age of six, while taking a lifetime to acquire cognition? What is the role of language and cognition in thinking? Is abstract cognition possible without language? Is language just a communication device, or is it fundamental in developing thoughts? Why are there no animals with human thinking but without human language? Combinations even among 100 words and 100 objects (multiple words can represent multiple objects) exceed the number of all the particles in the Universe, and it seems that no amount of experience would suffice to learn these associations. How does human brain overcome this difficulty?

Attention, predictions and expectations and their violation: attentional control in the human brain

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193677 Year: Pages: 211 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-367-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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In the burdened scenes of everyday life, our brains must select from among many competing inputs for perceptual synthesis - so that only the most relevant receive full attention and irrelevant (distracting) information is suppressed. At the same time, we must remain responsive to salient events outside our current focus of attention - and balancing these two processing modes is a fundamental task our brain constantly needs to solve. Both the physical saliency of a stimulus, as well as top-down predictions about imminent sensations crucially influence attentional selection and consequently the response to unexpected events. Research over recent decades has identified two separate brain networks involved in predictive top-down control and reorientation to unattended events (or oddball stimuli): the dorsal and ventral fronto-parietal attention systems of the human brain. Moreover, specific electrophysiological brain responses are known to characterize attentional orienting as well as the processing of deviant stimuli. However, many key questions are outstanding. What are the exact functional differences between these cortical attention systems? How are they lateralised in the two hemispheres? How do top-down and bottom-up signals interact to enable flexible attentional control? How does structural damage to one system affect the functionality of the other in brain damaged patients? Are there sensory-specific and supra-modal attentional systems in the brain? In addition to these questions, it is now accepted that brain responses are not only affected by the saliency of external stimuli, but also by our expectations about sensory inputs. How these two influences are balanced, and how predictions are formed in cortical networks, or generated on the basis of experience-dependent learning, are intriguing issues. In this Research Topic, we aim to collect innovative contributions that shed further light on the (cortical) mechanisms of attentional control in the human brain. In particular, we would like to encourage submissions that investigate the behavioural correlates, functional anatomy or electrophysiological markers of attentional selection and reorientation. Special emphasis will be given to studies investigating the context-sensitivity of these attentional processes in relation to prior expectations, trial history, contextual cues or physical saliency. We would like to encourage submissions employing different research methods (psychophysical recordings, neuroimaging techniques such as fMRI, MEG, EEG or ECoG, as well as neurostimulation methods such as TMS or tDCS) in healthy volunteers or neurological patients. Computational models and animal studies are also welcome. Finally, we also welcome submission of meta-analyses and reviews articles that provide new insights into, or conclusions about recent work in the field.

Envy, Poison, and Death

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ISBN: 9780199562602 Year: Pages: 436 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562602.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: Leverhulme Trust
Subject: History --- Law --- Religion --- Gender Studies --- Ethnology --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-10 23:58:16
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At the heart of this book are some trials conducted in Athens in the fourth century BCE. In each case, the charges involved a combination of supernatural activities, including potion-brewing and cult activity; the defendants were all women. Because of the brevity of the ancient sources, and their lack of agreement, the precise charges are unclear; the reasons for taking these women to court, even condemning some of them to die, remain mysterious. This book takes the complexity and confusion of the evidence not as a riddle to be solved, but as revealing multiple social dynamics. It explores the changing factors—material, ideological, and psychological—that may have provoked these events. It focuses in particular on the dual role of envy (phthonos) and gossip as processes by which communities identified people and activities that were dangerous, and examines how and why those local, even individual, dynamics may have come to shape official civic decisions during a time of perceived hardship. At first sight so puzzling, these trials come to provide a vivid glimpse of the sociopolitical environment of Athens during the early to mid-fourth century BCE, including responses to changes in women’s status and behaviour, and attitudes to particular supernatural/religious activities within the city. This study reveals some of the characters, events, and local social processes that shaped an emergent concept of magic: it suggests that the legal boundary of acceptable behaviour was shifting, not only within the legal arena, but also with the active involvement of society beyond the courts.

Keywords

Athens --- women --- magic --- religion --- law --- courts --- trial --- fourth century --- emotions --- envy --- phthonos --- gossip

Intimités amoureuses à l’ère du numérique. Le cas des relations nouées dans les mondes sociaux en ligne

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ISBN: 9782889300495 Year: Pages: 352 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_594259 Language: French
Publisher: Editions Alphil Presses universitaires suisses Grant: Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) - OAPEN-CH - 163640
Subject: Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-27 11:01:17
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The Internet and online social world have become the intermediaries of contemporary intimacy. Second Life offers exactly that, a ‘second life’, but in the virtual universe. This book delves into the use of this platform to understand the experiences of those who participate in a relationship there. How do communicational tools contribute to the organisation of intimate exchanges? What do these relationships reveal about the experiences of modern romantic liaisons? Drawing on the sociology of couples together with emotions and techniques, this research considers Second Life as both the developer and operator of contemporary intimacy. It addresses a subject at the centre of current affairs with an analysis of relational practises that remains little studied at present.

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