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Beyond Price: Essays on Birth and Death

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ISBN: 9781783741687 9781783741694 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0061 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Philosophy --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-16 16:50:15
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In nine lively essays, bioethicist J. David Velleman challenges the prevailing consensus about assisted suicide and reproductive technology, articulating an original approach to the ethics of creating and ending human lives. He argues that assistance in dying is appropriate only at the point where talk of suicide is not, and he raises moral objections to anonymous donor conception. In their place, Velleman champions a morality of valuing personhood over happiness in making end-of-life decisions, and respecting the personhood of future children in making decisions about procreation. These controversial views are defended with philosophical rigor while remaining accessible to the general reader. Written over Velleman's 30 years of undergraduate teaching in bioethics, the essays have never before been collected and made available to a non-academic audience. They will open new lines of debate on issues of intense public interest.

Non-Ordinary Mental Expressions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194858 Year: Pages: 135 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-485-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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So-called altered states of consciousness (ASC) are an intriguing, still under-researched topic, with profound neuropsychological and epistemological implications. In the last few decades there has been increasing multidisciplinary interest in consciousness and ASC, a term encompassing a wide range of pathological and non-pathological conditions, including dreaming, near-death experiences (NDEs), hypnagogic states, hallucinogenic experiences, epileptic seizures, psychotic symptoms, coma, and minimally conscious states. There has also been considerable research on procedures that may affect ASC including hypnosis and various forms of meditation. Since the term altered implies for some abnormality or dysfunction, the concept of anomalous experiences (not necessarily implying pathology) is increasingly used and more general.The term non-ordinary mental expressions (NOME) encompasses both anomalous (at least for a particular culture at a particular time) experiences and related neuropsychological processes and induction procedures. Our use of non-ordinary: a) does not assume pathology; and b) is suitable for sophisticated and positive mental activities, including, creativity, intuition, and some forms of spirituality. We use the term mind to include both conscious and preconscious processes, and question the notion that, "ordinary", waking consciousness provides the only epistemologically valid stance with regard to the mind and its interactions with reality. Similarly, although genius and madness both imply something beyond normal, they differ importantly in their ontology and implications. In short, NOME refers to both experiences and procedures that seek to change short- or long-term psychological processes. Regarding the latter, meditation is an intentional activity, calling for training of attention and reflective awareness, and varying in specific procedures and outcomes. With regard to an absence of pathology, NDEs, which have several features in common with mystical experiences, may occur in the absence of any brain disorder and bring about positive changes. Reductionist interpretations of NDEs as pathophysiological do not explain nor encompass the whole range of their phenomenology. Instead, brain areas and neurotransmitters potentially involved in these experiences may provide a common terrain for both pathological and non-pathological mind expressions.We believe that a proper approach to NOME should adopt a neurophenomenological approach to the study of brain mechanisms and subjective experiences as a whole, integrating experiential and neuroscientific perspectives, without any a priori fixed hierarchy or ontology. The brain-mind relationship can be analyzed as a recursive loop, where brain activity gives rise to mental phenomena and mental processes, in turn, yield functional and plastic changes in the brain. This Research Topic will include international experts in NOME as well as young researchers within a multidisciplinary discussion, in which neuroscientists, psychologists, psychiatrists, philosophers, anthropologists, and other professionals will be asked to contribute. We aim to reappraise the importance of NOME and its implications for the mind-brain-world relationship. The editors will solicit original research contributions as well as theoretical papers, such as reviews, mini-reviews, and theoretical discussions.

The Archaeology of Death in Post-medieval Europe

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ISBN: 9783110439731 9783110470628 Year: Pages: 237 DOI: 10.1515/9783110439731 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: History --- Archaeology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-18 19:20:12
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Historical burial grounds are an enormous archaeological resource and have the potential to inform studies not only of demography or the history of disease and mortality, but also histories of the body, of religious and other beliefs about death, of changing social relationships, values and aspirations.In the last decades, the intensive urban development and a widespread legal requirement to undertake archaeological excavation of historical sites has led to a massive increase in the number of post-medieval graveyards and burial places that have been subjected to archaeological investigation. The archaeology of the more recent periods, which are comparatively well documented, is no less interesting and important an area of study than prehistoric periods.This volume offers a range of case studies and reflections on aspects of death and burial in post-medieval Europe. Looking at burial goods, the spatial aspects of cemetery organisation and the way that the living interact with the dead, contributors who have worked on sites from Central, North and West Europe present some of their evidence and ideas. The coherence of the volume is maintained by a substantial integrative introduction by the editor, Professor Sarah Tarlow.“This book is a ‘first’ and a necessary one. It is an exciting and far-ranging collection of studies on post-medieval burial practice across Europe that will most certainly be used extensively”Professor Howard Williams

Locating Hell in Islamic Traditions

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Book Series: Islamic History and Civilization ISBN: 9789004301368 9789004301214 Year: Volume: 119 Pages: 375 pp., 11 illus., DOI: 10.1163/9789004301368 Language: English
Publisher: Brill Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 263308
Subject: Religion
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 09:19:18
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Islam is often seen as a religious tradition in which hell does not play a particularly prominent role. This volume challenges this hackneyed view. Locating Hell in Islamic Traditions is the first book-length analytic study of the Muslim hell. It maps out a broad spectrum of Islamic attitudes toward hell, from the Quranic vision(s) of hell to the pious cultivation of the fear of the afterlife, theological speculations, metaphorical and psychological understandings, and the modern transformations of hell. Contributors: Frederick Colby, Daniel de Smet, Christiane Gruber, Jon Hoover, Mohammad Hassan Khalil, Christian Lange, Christopher Melchert, Simon O’Meara, Samuela Pagani, Tommaso Tesei, Roberto Tottoli, Wim Raven, and Richard van Leeuwen.

Keywords

islam --- damnation --- jahannam --- afterlife --- eschatology --- jinn --- asceticism --- quran --- paradise --- melek --- salvation --- fear --- angels --- death --- religion --- al-nār

Endoplasmic reticulum - shape and function in stress translation

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193448 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-344-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a manufacturing unit in eukaryotic cells required for the synthesis of proteins, lipids, metabolites and hormones. Besides supporting cellular signalling networks by its anabolic function, the ER on its own or in communication with other organelles directly initiates signalling processes of physiological significance. Based on the intimate and immediate involvement in stress signalling the ER is considered as sensory organelle on which cells strongly rely to effectively translate environmental cues into adaptive stress responses. The transcellular distribution of the ER providing comprehensive cell-to-cell connections in multicellular organisms probably allows a concerted action of cell alliances and tissue areas towards environmental constraints. At the cellular level, stress adaptation correlates with the capability of the ER machinery to synthesise proteins participating in stress signalling as well as in the activation of ER membrane localised proteins to start cell-protective signalling processes. Importantly, depending on the stress insult, the ER either supports protective strategies or initiates cell death programmes. Recent, genetic, molecular and cell biological studies have drawn an initial picture of underlying signalling events activated by ER membrane localised proteins. In this Research Topic, we provided a platform for articles describing research on ER morphology and metabolism with a focus on stress translation. The Research Topic is sub-divided into the following sections: 1. ER in stress signalling and adaptation 2. ER structure and biosynthetic functions 3. Regulation of protein processing 4. Regulation of programmed cell death

Heart Rate Variability: Clinical Applications and Interaction between HRV and Heart Rate

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196524 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-652-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Over the last decades, assessment of heart rate variability (HRV) has increased in various fields of research. HRV describes changes in heartbeat intervals, which are caused by autonomic neural regulation, i.e. by the interplay of the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems. The most frequent application of HRV is connected to cardiological issues, most importantly to the monitoring of post-myocardial infarction patients and the prediction of sudden cardiac death. Analysis of HRV is also frequently applied in relation to diabetes, renal failure, neurological and psychiatric conditions, sleep disorders, psychological phenomena such as stress, as well as drug and addiction research including alcohol and smoking. The widespread application of HRV measurements is based on the fact that they are noninvasive, easy to perform, and in general reproducible – if carried out under standardized conditions. However, the amount of parameters to be analysed is still rising. Well-established time domain and frequency domain parameters are discussed controversially when it comes to their physiological interpretation and their psychometric properties like reliability and validity, and the sensitivity to cardiovascular properties of the variety of parameters seems to be a topic for further research. Recently introduced parameters like pNNxx and new dynamic methods such as approximate entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis offer new potentials and warrant standardization. However, HRV is significantly associated with average heart rate (HR) and one can conclude that HRV actually provides information on two quantities, i.e. on HR and its variability. It is hard to determine which of these two plays a principal role in the clinical value of HRV. The association between HRV and HR is not only a physiological phenomenon but also a mathematical one which is due to non-linear (mathematical) relationship between RR interval and HR. If one normalizes HRV to its average RR interval, one may get ‘pure’ variability free from the mathematical bias. Recently, a new modification method of the association between HRV and HR has been developed which enables us to completely remove the HRV dependence on HR (even the physiological one), or conversely enhance this dependence. Such an approach allows us to explore the HR contribution to the clinical significance of HRV, i.e. whether HR or its variability plays a main role in the HRV clinical value. This Research Topic covers recent advances in the application of HRV, methodological issues, basic underlying mechanisms as well as all aspects of the interaction between HRV and HR.

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2015 (6)