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Carbon Fibers

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ISBN: 9783906980690 9783906980706 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-906980-70-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 06:30:12
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Remarkably, truly novel structures are still being found for materials made of a single element: carbon. Perhaps there is a ‘revolution’ in carbon-only materials. Indeed, recently, two Nobel prizes were awarded for new forms of carbon: for fullerenes in 1996, and for graphene in 2010. And the magic and beauty of carbon nanotubes has held the attention of the scientific world for more than a decade. Yet, there is still more to discover and to explain. In this Special Issue, the focus is on just one area of carbon research: fibers. Even given this relatively narrow focus there is a diversity of research that is both compelling and frustrating. Compelling as it demonstrates the vitality of the subject, and frustrating as it makes it difficult to organize. The topics covered include new fiber fabrication protocols, the mechanical behavior of fiber reinforced polymers, new techniques to study the microstructure of fiber containing composites, new uses of fiber structures, the use of carbon fibers as catalyst supports, and studies regarding the difficulties of machining fiber structures for inclusion in complex structures.

Photonic Integration and Photonics-Electronics Convergence on Silicon Platform

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196937 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-693-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Silicon photonics technology, which has the DNA of silicon electronics technology, promises to provide a compact photonic integration platform with high integration density, mass-producibility, and excellent cost performance. This technology has been used to develop and to integrate various photonic functions on silicon substrate. Moreover, photonics-electronics convergence based on silicon substrate is now being pursued. Thanks to these features, silicon photonics will have the potential to be a superior technology used in the construction of energy-efficient cost-effective apparatuses for various applications, such as communications, information processing, and sensing. Considering the material characteristics of silicon and difficulties in microfabrication technology, however, silicon by itself is not necessarily an ideal material. For example, silicon is not suitable for light emitting devices because it is an indirect transition material. The resolution and dynamic range of silicon-based interference devices, such as wavelength filters, are significantly limited by fabrication errors in microfabrication processes. For further performance improvement, therefore, various assisting materials, such as indium-phosphide, silicon-nitride, germanium-tin, are now being imported into silicon photonics by using various heterogeneous integration technologies, such as low-temperature film deposition and wafer/die bonding. These assisting materials and heterogeneous integration technologies would also expand the application field of silicon photonics technology. Fortunately, silicon photonics technology has superior flexibility and robustness for heterogeneous integration. Moreover, along with photonic functions, silicon photonics technology has an ability of integration of electronic functions. In other words, we are on the verge of obtaining an ultimate technology that can integrate all photonic and electronic functions on a single Si chip. This e-Book aims at covering recent developments of the silicon photonic platform and novel functionalities with heterogeneous material integrations on this platform.

Impact of Information Society Research in the Global South

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9789812873804 9789812873811 Year: Pages: 291 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-287-381-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Social Sciences --- Information theory
Added to DOAB on : 2015-06-02 18:13:44
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The second volume in the SIRCA book series investigates the impact of information society initiatives by extending the boundaries of academic research into the realm of practice. Global in scope, it includes contributions and research projects from Asia, Africa and Latin America. The international scholarly community has taken a variety of approaches to question the impact of information society initiatives on populations in the Global South. This book addresses two aspects— Impact of research: How is the research on ICTs in the Global South playing a role in creating an information society? (e.g. policy formulation, media coverage, implementation in practice) and Research on impact: What is the evidence for the impact of ICTs on society? (i.e. the objectives of socio-economic development). This volume brings together a multiplicity of voices and approaches from social scientific research to produce an engaging volume for a variety of stakeholders including academics, researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and those in the business and civil sectors of society.

Magnetic Resonance Sensors

ISBN: 9783906980980 9783906980997 Year: Pages: 224 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 09:04:48
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Magnetic Resonance finds applications, from spectroscopy to imaging, on a routine basis in the majority of research and medical institutions. It is also becoming more frequently used for specific applications in which the whole instrument and system is designed for optimum operation. Magnetic Resonance sensors have been applied to fields as varied as petro-chemistry - with borehole logging, food engineering - with online process monitoring, emergency medicine - with point of care diagnostics and civil engineering - with sensors for monitoring cement drying. This great diversity is seeing exciting developments in magnetic resonance sensing technology published in application specific journals where they are often not seen by the wider sensor community.

Design and Application of Quantified Self Approaches for Reflective Learning in the Workplace

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ISBN: 9783731504061 Year: Pages: XVI, 332 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000047818 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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Learning by reflection is one of the core processes for improving work performance. We provide a novel approach for reflective learning support by transferring and adapting practices from the Quantified Self to workplace settings. This book contributes with an integrated model for technical support of reflective learning, mobile and web-based applications designed for quantifying and gathering data in the workplace, and empirical insights from thirteen studies in three different use cases.

Phytoalexins: Current Progress and Future Prospects

ISBN: 9783038420583 9783038420590 Year: Pages: 516 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-12 11:33:35
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Phytoalexins are antimicrobial substances of low molecular weight produced by plants in response to infection or stress, which form part of their active defense mechanisms. It is now clear that phytoalexins exhibit toxicity across much of the biological spectrum, prokaryotic and eukaryotic. Starting in the 1950s, research on phytoalexins has begun with biochemistry and bio-organic chemistry, resulting in the determination of their structure, their biological activity as well as mechanisms of their synthesis and their catabolism by microorganisms. Elucidation of the biosynthesis of numerous phytoalexins has also permitted the use of molecular biology tools for the exploration of the genes encoding enzymes of their synthesis pathways and their regulators. This has led to potential applications for increasing plant resistance to diseases. Phytoalexins display an enormous diversity belonging to various chemical families such as isoflavones, isoflavanones, pterocarpans, isoflavans, flavanones, coumestans, furanoacetylenes, phenylpropanoids, steroid glycoalkaloids, norsesquiterpenoids/sesquiterpenoids, coumarins, diterpenes, ent-kaurane-related diterpenoids, acidic sesquiterpenoids, 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, naphthaldehydes, indoles and stilbenes.Research papers dealing with all aspects of phytoalexins, including structure elucidation; chemical synthesis; methods for phytoalexin analysis in plant extracts or biological fluids; biosynthesis studies including modulation of phytoalexin synthesis; engineering of phytoalexin biochemical pathways in plants and microbes; biological activities; structure/activity relationships; phytoalexin metabolism in planta and by micro-organisms; roles and ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters or Multi-Drugs Efflux (MDE) transporters are welcome for inclusion in this Special Issue of Molecules. Review articles, particularly those dealing with the themes mentioned above are also particularly welcome for inclusion.

S-BPM in the Wild: Practical Value Creation

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783319175416 9783319175423 Year: Pages: 283 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-17542-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Computer Science --- Business and Management --- Manufactures --- Media and communication --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- Biotechnology --- Transportation --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Pharmacy and materia medica
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-12 17:29:40
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This is the first book to present field studies on the application of subject-oriented business process management (S-BPM). Each case presents a specific story and focuses on an essential modeling or implementation issue, and most end with implications or suggestions for further studies. Significant variables and success factors are identified that were discovered during the respective study and lead to suggesting S-BPM novelties. For each case, the authors explain step-by-step how the story develops, and provide readers guidance by detailing the respective rationale.The studies covered are clustered according to three main S-BPM themes: Part I “Business Operation Support” documents approaches to the practical development of S-BPM solutions in various application domains and organizational settings, while Part II “Consultancy and Education Support” highlights cases that can help to train readers in S-BPM modeling and knowledge acquisition for S-BPM lifecycle iterations. It also refers to architecting S-BPM solutions for application cases based on hands-on experience. Part III “Technical Execution Support” focuses on concepts for utilizing specific theories and technologies to execute S-BPM models. It also addresses how to create reference models for certain settings in the field. Lastly, the appendix covers all relevant aspects needed to grasp S-BPM modeling and apply it based on fundamental examples. Its format reconciles semantic precision with syntactic rigor.>Addressing the needs of developers, educators and practitioners, this book will help companies to learn from the experiences of first-time users and to develop systems that fit their business processes, explaining the latest key methodological and technological S-BPM developments in the fields of training, research and application.

30 years of the Comet Assay: an overview with some new insights

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196494 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-649-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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By means of this ‘Frontiers in Genetics’ research topic, we are celebrating 30 years of the Comet Assay. The first paper on this single-cell gel electrophoresis assay was published in 1984 by O. Ostling and K.J. Johanson (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. Vol.123: 291-298). The comet assay is a versatile and sensitive method for measuring single - and double-strand breaks in DNA. By including lesion-specific enzymes in the assay, its range and sensitivity are greatly increased, but it is important to bear in mind that their specificity is not absolute. The comet assay (with and without inclusion of lesion-specific enzymes) is widely used as a biomarker assay in human population studies - primarily to measure DNA damage, but increasingly also to assess the capacity of cells for DNA repair. Ostling and Johanson (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 1984) were also the first to report experiments to measure DNA repair, by simply following the decrease of DNA damage over time after challenging cells with ionising radiation. However, this approach is time-consuming and laborious as it requires an extended period of cell culture and is therefore not ideal for biomonitoring studies, which typically require high-throughput processing of many samples. As an alternative approach, the in vitro comet-based repair assay was developed: a cell extract is incubated with a DNA substrate containing specific lesions, and DNA incisions accumulate. The in vitro comet-based repair assay has been modified and improved over the past decade: it was first devised to measure base excision repair of oxidised purines in lymphocytes (Collins et al., Mutagenesis, 2001), but has since been adapted for other lesions and thus other repair pathways, as well as being applied to tissue samples in addition to cell suspensions. Even after 30 years, the comet assay is still in a growth phase, with many new users each year. Many questions are repeatedly raised, which may seem to have self-evident answers, but clearly, it is necessary to reiterate them for the benefit of the new audience, and sometimes being forced to think again about old topics can shed new light. Different applications of the comet assay are discussed in this special issue, including: genotoxicity testing in different organisms, human biomonitoring, DNA repair studies, environmental biomonitoring and clinical studies. Furthermore, we consider and where possible answer questions, including the ones raised by Raymond Tice at the 8th International Comet Assay Workshop in Perugia (Italy 2009): What is the spectrum of DNA damage detected by the various versions of the comet assay?; What are the limitations associated with each application?; What should be done to standardize the assay for biomonitoring studies?; Can the comet assay be used to monitor changes in global methylation status?; What cell types are suitable for detecting genotoxic substances and their effects in vivo and in vitro?; Can the assay be fully automated?; and more. So this ‘Frontiers in Genetics’ research topic is written for the beginner as well as for the experienced users of the comet assay.

New directions in corpus-based translation studies

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Translation and Multilingual Natural Language Processing ISBN: 9783944675831 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 174 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_559833 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2015-06-04 15:00:51
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Corpus-based translation studies has become a major paradigm and research methodology and has investigated a wide variety of topics in the last two decades. The contributions to this volume add to the range of corpus-based studies by providing examples of some less explored applications of corpus analysis methods to translation research. They show that the area keeps evolving as it constantly opens up to different frameworks and approaches, from appraisal theory to process-oriented analysis, and encompasses multiple translation settings, including (indirect) literary translation, machine(-assisted) translation and the practical work of professional legal translators. The studies included in the volume also expand the range of application of corpus applications in terms of the tools used to accomplish the research tasks outlined.

Mind over brain, brain over mind: cognitive causes and consequences of controlling brain activity

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194889 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-488-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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This Research Topic combines articles aiming to gain a better understanding on different factors that determine whether people are successful or not in controlling computerized devices with brain signals. Since decades, technological advancements in neuroscience allow the interpretation of brain signals and their translation into control messages (Brain-computer interface (BCI)). Moreover, the control of brain signals can be used to induce changes in cognition and behavior (Neurofeedback (NF)). However, the break-through of this technology for the broad population in real-world applications has not yet arrived. Various factors have been related to the individual success in controlling computerized devices with brain signals, but to date, no general theoretical framework is available. In this Research Topic, aspects of the training protocol such as instructions, task and feedback as well as cognitive and psychological traits such as motivation, mood, locus of control and empathy are investigated as determinants of BCI or NF performance. Moreover, the mechanisms and networks involved in gaining and maintaining control over brain activity as well as its prediction are addressed. Finally, as the ultimate goal of this research is to use BCI and NF for communication or control and therapy, respectively, novel applications for individuals with disabilities or disorders are discussed.

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