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Genome-wide view on the physiology of vitamin D

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193493 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-349-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Abstract

The main physiological actions of the biologically most active metabolite of vitamin D, 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3(1a,25(OH)2D3), are calcium and phosphorus uptake and transport and thereby controlling bone formation. Other emergent areas of 1a,25(OH)2D3 action are in the control of immune functions, cellular growth and differentiation. This fits both with the widespread expression of the VDR and the above described consequences of vitamin D deficiency. Transcriptome-wide analysis indicated that per cell type between 200 and 600 genes are primary targets of vitamin D. Since most of these genes respond to vitamin D in a cell-specific fashion, the total number of vitamin D targets in the human genome is far higher than 1,000. This is supported by the genome-wide view on VDR binding sites in human lymphocytes, monocytes, colon and hepatic cells. All genomic actions of 1a,25(OH)2D3 are mediated by the transcription factor vitamin D receptor (VDR) that has been the subject of intense study since the 1980’s. Thus, vitamin D signaling primarily implies the molecular actions of the VDR. In this research topic, we present in 15 chapters different perspectives on the action of vitamin D and its receptor, such as the impact of the genomewide distribution of VDR binding loci, ii) the transcriptome- and proteome-wide effects of vitamin D, iii) the role of vitamin D in health, iv) tissue-specific functions of vitamin D and v) the involvement of vitamin D in different diseases, such as infections, autoimmune diseases, diabetes and different types of cancer.

Vitamin C and Human Health

ISBN: 9783906980614 9783906980621 Year: Pages: 236 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-01-12 11:52:06
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Abstract

Ascorbic acid is a small, simple, water soluble molecule, synthesised by most plants and animals, with the exception of humans and some animal species due to mutations in the gene encoding the terminal enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway. For humans, it is thus a vitamin (vitamin C) that must be obtained from the diet, with complete deficiency resulting in the fatal disease scurvy. Many functions have been attributed to this fascinating molecule and, despite nearly 90 years of research since its discovery, new roles are still being uncovered, including recent discoveries that it acts as a regulator of epigenetic marks and transcription factors (1). In this volume we begin with a review by Michels and Frei on specific factors that need to be taken into consideration when carrying out vitamin C research. Translational research normally comprises a progression from in vitro/cell culture studies to animal models and finally to clinical trials. At each of these stages, there are requirements specific to vitamin C research that need to be integrated into study designs and this review describes these in detail. [...]

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