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Catalysis for the Conversion of Biomass and Its Derivatives

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Book Series: Proceedings 2: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783844242829 Year: Pages: 474 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-03 15:52:33
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Biomass will play an important role in the future for the replacement of fossil sources for fuels and chemicals. Catalytic processes are required for the efficient conversion of biomass. The development of such processes and the understanding of the catalytic reactions of biomass molecules has recently attracted considerable and increasing attention. In this book, thirteen experts in different fields deliver their views on the state-of-the-art and future development of the use of biomass as a sustainable feedstock for the chemical industry. The book focuses on chemical aspects, such as catalyst development product analysis or reaction engineering, but also seeks a wider perspective and convers related issues like bioeconomics and plant growth.This book is aimed at students and scientists in the interdisciplinary field of catalysis for an introduction to the emerging field of biomass conversion and an overview on recent developments and challenges. The papers are based on lectures presented by the authors at a summer school organized by the Fritz-Haber-Institut and held in August 2010 at Kloster Seeon in Germany in the framework of the National Science Foundation-funded program Partnership in International Research and Education: Molecular Engineering for the Conversion of Biomass Derived Reactants to Fuels, Chemicals, and Materials.

Guidobaldo del Monte (1545–1607)

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Book Series: Proceedings 4: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783844242836 Year: Pages: 394 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-07 10:44:51
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Guidobaldo Marquis dal Monte has long been identified as a key figure in the history of the mathematical disciplines in the Renaissance. The contributions brought together in this volume examine all the key aspects of the Marquis dal Monte’s activities, ranging from mechanics and the science of perspective to architecture and geometry. Some of the essays provide intellectual analyses of Guidobaldo’s works, including their significance and reception, others document his activities in the design of mathematical instruments, in civil and military architecture, and in his professional travels and contacts with Galileo. Many of the contributions rely on archival research shedding new light on his activities. As a result, Guidobaldo appears in a new light and as a key figure not only in the Duchy of Urbino, but also on an Italian and European stage.

Metallurgy, Ballistics and Epistemic Instruments: The Nova scientia of Nicolò Tartaglia – A New Edition

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Book Series: Sources 6: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783844252583 Year: Pages: 360 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-07 12:09:23
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In 1537, Nicolò Tartaglia (1500–1557), a mathematician from Brescia, published "Nova scientia." It was this work that led to the foundation of the modern science of ballistics. Tartaglia’s intention was to create a purely mathematical science based on axioms, which was fundamental to the entire subject of mechanics, starting with a limited number of principles and arriving at a series of propositions through a rigid procedure of deduction.Nevertheless, as Tartaglia himself states, his motive was fundamentally practical and connected to the activities of the sixteenth-century bombardier. A new edition of Nicolò Tartaglia’s "Nova scientia," based on the 1558 print run of the second enlarged edition (1550), shows how the emergence of theoretical ballistics was a consequence of the technological innovations that took place in the frame of the practice of iron casting at the turn from the fifteenth to the sixteenth century.

New Vistas on Old Problems: Recent Approaches to the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics

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Book Series: Proceedings 3: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783844242843 Year: Pages: 188 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-07 12:14:48
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Quantum theory has been a subject of interpretational debates ever since its inception. The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, the empirical violation of Bell’s inequalities, and recent activities to exploit quantum entanglement for technological innovation only exacerbate a long-standing philosophical debate. Despite no-signaling theorems and theories of decoherence, deep-rooted conflicts between special relativistic principles and observed quantum correlations as well as between definite measurement outcomes and quantum theoretical superpositions persist.This collection of papers, first presented at an international symposium at the University of Bern in 2011, highlights some recent approaches to the old problems of a philosophy of quantum mechanics. The authors address the issues from a variety of perspectives, ranging from variations of causal theory and system theoretic interpretations of the observer to an empirical test of whether entanglement itself can be entangled. The essays demonstrate that the discussion about the foundations of quantum mechanics is as lively and interesting as ever.

Non-Isothermal Kinetic Methods: Workbook and Laboratory Manual

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Book Series: Textbooks 1: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783844246933 Year: Pages: 73 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-07 12:28:46
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In the modern world of ever-advancing technologies, actual tests of products and processes are more and more often preceded, if not replaced, by computer modeling. This saves the time and resources required for actual tests, and enables a better understanding of processes that occur in the course of tests. Preliminary computer modeling favors prudent planning of experiments. Calculations in thermal analysis are used everywhere, for example, in estimating the efficiency of thermal insulation of pipelines and in estimating the critical overheating conditions for some chemical substances under which their decomposition, self-heating, explosion, and so forth, occurs. This methodical manual focuses on a small aspect of calculations in thermal analysis dealing with constructing kinetic models from thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry experimental data.

Research and Pedagogy: A History of Quantum Physics through Its Textbooks

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Book Series: Studies 2: Max Planck Research Library in the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783844258714 Year: Pages: 302 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-07 12:34:48
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Historians of quantum physics and early quantum mechanics have seldom paid attention to the ways the new theory was integrated in physics textbooks, perhaps taking for granted that novelties in science can only be taught once they are fully understood and generally accepted. The essays in this volume challenge this view by studying some of the early books and textbooks in which quantum theory was first introduced. By so doing, the authors show the many ways books and textbooks embody pedagogical and research practices in certain local environments (geographical, disciplinary, in terms of expertise, etc.), as well as the circular feedback between research and pedagogy.Textbooks can become the subject of a history of early quantum physics since the very process of writing a textbook, (i.e., of trying to organise a new doctrine to the newcomer in an accessible way), together with its life as an object that is issued, used, changed, and abandoned, incorporates many of the tensions between research and pedagogy. Furthermore, the life of these books can also help us better situate less known actors in the history of quantum physics, by bringing into the picture the reasons, the context, the research agenda, and other aspects that cannot be found in the publication of research papers or in the abundant correspondence between the main physicists involved in this story.The case studies collected in this volume may, at first glance, look like a heterogeneous set. Some books were not, in fact, primarily addressing quantum theory as such, but including some of its early principles in re-shaping the established foundational principles and modes of teaching in fields such as optics and physical chemistry. Others were written by scientists not directly involved in the development of the new physics, and their books were addressed at an audience interested in having only a superficial knowledge of the theory of quanta. Finally, the main actors in the formulation of quantum theory wrote books on the quantum for different purposes: as a way to organise their thoughts, to spread a particular interpretation of the theory, or to press for their personal research agendas, among others. This heterogeneity is, however, the tool the editors use to give a full picture of the role of early textbooks in the history of quantum physics.

Traditions and Transformations in the History of Quantum Physics

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Book Series: Proceedings 5: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783844251340 Year: Pages: 352 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-07 13:05:10
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More than a century after the beginning of the quantum revolution, historians continue to explore new facets in the history of quantum physics, and to re-examine some of its better-known aspects. The thirteen papers collected in this volume, by authors from five continents, present central trends in the current study of quantum physics within its theoretical, experimental, philosophical, technological and social contexts. They discuss developments from the late nineteenth to the early twenty-first century and go beyond the traditional focus on Europe and North America to include China and Japan, and beyond the Heisenbergs and Diracs to reveal the role of actors who hitherto have played only a marginal role in historical account, but left their mark on the development of quantum physics. Also a wider array of subdisciplines comes into view, from optics to quantum gravity through quantum electrodynamics, from atomic and nuclear to condense matter physics and foundations of physics. Moreover, the volume shows that fields such as dispersion, physical chemistry and solid state physics should not be seen merely as areas of applications of ideas that evolved in other contexts, but should be regarded as birthplaces of important theoretical insights. The perspective of the papers ranges from local histories to global discussions, from conceptual changes via the role of experimentation to interactions with social and technological forces and to the interpretation of the theory.

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2013 (7)