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The SWIFT Affair

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ISBN: 9782940415724 9782940415731 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Graduate Institute Publications
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-09 11:02:38
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Abstract

The story broke in 2006: Since 9/11, US intelligence services have had access to practically any international money transfer data by infiltrating the SWIFT (Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication) network. Banks worldwide transfer money orders and personal customer data through this network. While the surveillance was all-embracing in 2001, it was gradually limited over the course of the last few years. Revealed by the New York Times, the SWIFT affair has had global as w...

The Functional Beginning of Belligerent Occupation

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ISBN: 9782940415441 9782940415489 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Graduate Institute Publications
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-09 11:02:38
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Since the mid-19th century military powers and various writers have tried to define the notion of belligerent occupation and, in particular, the beginning thereof. There are many situations in which a state of occupation is controversial or even denied. When is control so effective that an invasion turns into a state of belligerent occupation? What is the minimum area of a territory that can be occupied; a town, a hamlet, a house or what about a hill taken by the armed forces? This paper exam...

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2011 (2)