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Tensor network is a fundamental mathematical tool with a huge range of applications in physics, such as condensed matter physics, statistic physics, high energy physics, and quantum information sciences. This open access book aims to explain the tensor network contraction approaches in a systematic way, from the basic definitions to the important applications. This book is also useful to those who apply tensor networks in areas beyond physics, such as machine learning and the bigdata analysis. Tensor network originates from the numerical renormalization group approach proposed by K. G. Wilson in 1975. Through a rapid development in the last two decades, tensor network has become a powerful numerical tool that can efficiently simulate a wide range of scientific problems, with particular success in quantum manybody physics. Varieties of tensor network algorithms have been proposed for different problems. However, the connections among different algorithms are not well discussed or reviewed. To fill this gap, this book explains the fundamental concepts and basic ideas that connect and/or unify different strategies of the tensor network contraction algorithms. In addition, some of the recent progresses in dealing with tensor decomposition techniques and quantum simulations are also represented in this book to help the readers to better understand tensor network. This open access book is intended for graduated students, but can also be used as a professional book for researchers in the related fields. To understand most of the contents in the book, only basic knowledge of quantum mechanics and linear algebra is required. In order to fully understand some advanced parts, the reader will need to be familiar with notion of condensed matter physics and quantum information, that however are not necessary to understand the main parts of the book. This book is a good source for nonspecialists on quantum physics to understand tensor network algorithms and the related mathematics.
Physics  Physics  Quantum physics  Quantum optics  Statistical physics  Machine learning  Elementary particles (Physics)  Quantum field theory
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With this graduatelevel primer, the principles of the standard model of particle physics receive a particular skillful, personal and enduring exposition by one of the great contributors to the field.In 2013 the late Prof. Altarelli wrote: The discovery of the Higgs boson and the nonobservation of new particles or exotic phenomena have made a big step towards completing the experimental confirmation of the standard model of fundamental particle interactions. It is thus a good moment for me to collect, update and improve my graduate lecture notes on quantum chromodynamics and the theory of electroweak interactions, with main focus on collider physics. I hope that these lectures can provide an introduction to the subject for the interested reader, assumed to be already familiar with quantum field theory and some basic facts in elementary particle physics as taught in undergraduate courses.
elementary particles  quantum field theory  string theory
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This book studies the foundations of quantum theory through its relationship to classical physics. This idea goes back to the Copenhagen Interpretation (in the original version due to Bohr and Heisenberg), which the author relates to the mathematical formalism of operator algebras originally created by von Neumann. The book therefore includes comprehensive appendices on functional analysis and C*algebras, as well as a briefer one on logic, category theory, and topos theory. Matters of foundational as well as mathematical interest that are covered in detail include symmetry (and its "spontaneous" breaking), the measurement problem, the KochenSpecker, Free Will, and Bell Theorems, the KadisonSinger conjecture, quantization, indistinguishable particles, the quantum theory of large systems, and quantum logic, the latter in connection with the topos approach to quantum theory.
Quantum physics  Mathematical physics  Matrix theory  Algebra
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This open access textbook takes the reader stepbystep through the concepts of mechanics in a clear and detailed manner. Mechanics is considered to be the core of physics, where a deep understanding of the concepts is essential in understanding all branches of physics. Many proofs and examples are included to help the reader grasp the fundamentals fully, paving the way to deal with more advanced topics. After solving all of the examples, the reader will have gained a solid foundation in mechanics and the skills to apply the concepts in a variety of situations. The book is useful for undergraduate students majoring in physics and other science and engineering disciplines. It can also be used as a reference for more advanced levels.
Physics  Mechanics  Mechanical engineering  Elementary particles (Physics)  Quantum field theory
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This book presents the deterministic view of quantum mechanics developed by Nobel Laureate Gerard 't Hooft.Dissatisfied with the uncomfortable gaps in the way conventional quantum mechanics meshes with the classical world, 't Hooft has revived the old hidden variable ideas, but now in a much more systematic way than usual. In this, quantum mechanics is viewed as a tool rather than a theory.The author gives examples of models that are classical in essence, but can be analysed by the use of quantum techniques, and argues that even the Standard Model, together with gravitational interactions, might be viewed as a quantum mechanical approach to analysing a system that could be classical at its core. He shows how this approach, even though it is based on hidden variables, can be plausibly reconciled with Bell's theorem, and how the usual objections voiced against the idea of ‘superdeterminism' can be overcome, at least in principle.This framework elegantly explains  and automatically cures  the problems of the wave function collapse and the measurement problem. Even the existence of an “arrow of time" can perhaps be explained in a more elegant way than usual. As well as reviewing the author’s earlier work in the field, the book also contains many new observations and calculations. It provides stimulating reading for all physicists working on the foundations of quantum theory.
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This open access book presents selected papers from International Symposium on Mathematics, Quantum Theory, and Cryptography (MQC), which was held on September 2527, 2019 in Fukuoka, Japan. The international symposium MQC addresses the mathematics and quantum theory underlying secure modeling of the post quantum cryptography including e.g. mathematical study of the lightmatter interaction models as well as quantum computing. The security of the most widely used RSA cryptosystem is based on the difficulty of factoring large integers. However, in 1994 Shor proposed a quantum polynomial time algorithm for factoring integers, and the RSA cryptosystem is no longer secure in the quantum computing model. This vulnerability has prompted research into postquantum cryptography using alternative mathematical problems that are secure in the era of quantum computers. In this regard, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) began to standardize postquantum cryptography in 2016. This book is suitable for postgraduate students in mathematics and computer science, as well as for experts in industry working on postquantum cryptography.
Mathematical and Computational Engineering  Data Structures and Information Theory  Quantum Computing  Systems and Data Security  Mathematical and Computational Engineering Applications  Data and Information Security  Cryptography for Quantum Computers  Postquantum Cryptography  Number Theory  Representation Theory  Quantum Physics  Security Modelling  Open Access  Maths for engineers  Algorithms & data structures  Information theory  Mathematical theory of computation  Computer security  Network security
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Light and light based technologies have played an important role in transforming our lives via scientific contributions spanned over thousands of years. In this book we present a vast collection of articles on various aspects of light and its applications in the contemporary world at a popular or semipopular level. These articles are written by the world authorities in their respective fields. This is therefore a rare volume where the world experts have come together to present the developments in this most important field of science in an almost pedagogical manner. This volume covers five aspects related to light. The first presents two articles, one on the history of the nature of light, and the other on the scientific achievements of IbnHaitham (Alhazen), who is broadly considered the father of modern optics. These are then followed by an article on ultrafast phenomena and the invisible world. The third part includes papers on specific sources of light, the discoveries of which have revolutionized optical technologies in our lifetime. They discuss the nature and the characteristics of lasers, Solidstate lighting based on the Light Emitting Diode (LED) technology, and finally modern electron optics and its relationship to the Muslim golden age in science. The book’s fourth part discusses various applications of optics and light in today's world, including biophotonics, art, optical communication, nanotechnology, the eye as an optical instrument, remote sensing, and optics in medicine. In turn, the last part focuses on quantum optics, a modern field that grew out of the interaction of light and matter. Topics addressed include atom optics, slow, stored and stationary light, optical tests of the foundation of physics, quantum mechanical properties of light fields carrying orbital angular momentum, quantum communication, and WaveParticle dualism in action.
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This third open access volume of the handbook series deals with accelerator physics, design, technology and operations, as well as with beam optics, dynamics and diagnostics. A joint CERNSpringer initiative, the “Particle Physics Reference Library” provides revised and updated contributions based on previously published material in the wellknown LandoltBoernstein series on particle physics, accelerators and detectors (volumes 21A,B1,B2,C), which took stock of the field approximately one decade ago. Central to this new initiative is publication under full open access
Particle Acceleration and Detection, Beam Physics  Measurement Science and Instrumentation  Elementary Particles, Quantum Field Theory  Nuclear Physics, Heavy Ions, Hadrons  Accelerator Physics  Nuclear Physics  Physics of particle detectors  beam optics  accelerator diagnostics  Highenergy physics handbook  beam diagnostics  Accelerators and beams  Standard model of particle physics  Fundamental particles and forces  Accelerator design  Open Access  Particle & highenergy physics  Scientific standards, measurement etc  Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory)  Atomic & molecular physics
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This second open access volume of the handbook series deals with detectors, large experimental facilities and data handling, both for accelerator and nonaccelerator based experiments. It also covers applications in medicine and life sciences. A joint CERNSpringer initiative, the “Particle Physics Reference Library” provides revised and updated contributions based on previously published material in the wellknown LandoltBoernstein series on particle physics, accelerators and detectors (volumes 21A,B1,B2,C), which took stock of the field approximately one decade ago. Central to this new initiative is publication under full open access.
Particle Acceleration and Detection, Beam Physics  Measurement Science and Instrumentation  Elementary Particles, Quantum Field Theory  Nuclear Physics, Heavy Ions, Hadrons  Nuclear Energy  Accelerator Physics  Nuclear Physics  Highenergy physics handbook  Standard model of particle physics  Fundamental particles and forces  Physics of particle detectors  Accelerators and beams  Open Access  Particle & highenergy physics  Scientific standards, measurement etc  Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory)  Atomic & molecular physics  Nuclear power & engineering
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This first open access volume of the handbook series contains articles on the standard model of particle physics, both from the theoretical and experimental perspective. It also covers related topics, such as heavyion physics, neutrino physics and searches for new physics beyond the standard model. A joint CERNSpringer initiative, the “Particle Physics Reference Library” provides revised and updated contributions based on previously published material in the wellknown LandoltBoernstein series on particle physics, accelerators and detectors (volumes 21A,B1,B2,C), which took stock of the field approximately one decade ago. Central to this new initiative is publication under full open access.
Elementary Particles, Quantum Field Theory  Nuclear Physics, Heavy Ions, Hadrons  Particle Acceleration and Detection, Beam Physics  Quantum Field Theories, String Theory  Measurement Science and Instrumentation  Nuclear Physics  Accelerator Physics  Theoretical, Mathematical and Computational Physics  Standard Model of particle physics  High energy physics handbook  Collider physics  Fundamental particles and forces  HEP reference work  experimental particle physics  LandoltBoernstein elementary particles  accelerator physics experiments  physics of particle detectors  Open Access  Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory)  Atomic & molecular physics  Particle & highenergy physics  Statistical physics  Scientific standards, measurement etc
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