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Marine Anthropogenic Litter

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ISBN: 9783319165097 9783319165103 Year: Pages: 447 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-16510-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Manufactures --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-12 18:20:53
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This book describes how man-made litter, primarily plastic, has spread into the remotest parts of the oceans and covers all aspects of this pollution problem from the impacts on wildlife and human health to socio-economic and political issues. Marine litter is a prime threat to marine wildlife, habitats and food webs worldwide.The book illustrates how advanced technologies from deep-sea research, microbiology and mathematic modelling as well as classic beach litter counts by volunteers contributed to the broad awareness of marine litter as a problem of global significance. The authors summarise more than five decades of marine litter research, which receives growing attention after the recent discovery of great oceanic garbage patches and the ubiquity of microscopic plastic particles in marine organisms and habitats.In 16 chapters, authors from all over the world have created a universal view on the diverse field of marine litter pollution, the biological impacts, dedicated research activities, and the various national and international legislative efforts to combat this environmental problem. They recommend future research directions necessary for a comprehensive understanding of this environmental issue and the development of efficient management strategies. This book addresses scientists, and it provides a solid knowledge base for policy makers, NGOs, and the broader public.

Rewilding European Landscapes

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ISBN: 9783319120386 9783319120393 Year: Pages: 227 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-12039-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-12 16:41:24
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Some European lands have been progressively alleviated of human pressures, particularly traditional agriculture in remote areas. This book proposes that this land abandonment can be seen as an opportunity to restore natural ecosystems via rewilding. We define rewilding as the passive management of ecological successions having in mind the long-term goal of restoring natural ecosystem processes. The book aims at introducing the concept of rewilding to scientists, students and practitioners. The first part presents the theory of rewilding in the European context. The second part of the book directly addresses the link between rewilding, biodiversity, and habitats. The third and last part is dedicated to practical aspects of the implementation of rewilding as a land management option. We believe that this book will both set the basis for future research on rewilding and help practitioners think about how rewilding can take place in areas under their management.

Biodiversity of Angola

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783030030834 Year: Pages: 549 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-03083-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Ecology --- Botany --- Zoology --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:12
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This open access multi-authored book presents a 'state of the science' synthesis of knowledge on the biodiversity of Angola, based on sources in peer-reviewed journals, in books and where appropriate, unpublished official reports. The book identifies Angola as one of the most biologically diverse countries in Africa, but notes that its fauna, flora, habitats and the processes that drive the dynamics of its ecosystems are still very poorly researched and documented. This 'state of the science' synthesis is for the use of all students of Angola's biodiversity, and for those responsible for the planning, development and sustainable management of the country's living resources. The volume brings together the results of expeditions and research undertaken in Angola since the late eighteenth century, with emphasis on work conducted in the four decades since Angola's independence in 1975. The individual chapters have been written by leaders in their fields, and reviewed by peers familiar with the region.

Stable Isotopes to Trace Migratory Birds and to Identify Harmful Diseases: An Introductory Guide

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ISBN: 9783319282978 9783319282985 Year: Pages: 49 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-28298-5 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-30 17:33:03
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This manuscript discusses the potentials of the approaches as mentioned below to monitor the AIVs in WMW. Molecular diagnostic platforms enable for accurate detection of the AIVs in the feces of infected birds. Similar technologies can be used to determine the bird species through DNA barcoding, enabling non-invasive research on the epidemiology of the disease. Wild migratory waterfowl (WMW) play significant role in the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) on large distances. Understanding bird migrations may therefore significantly contribute towards understanding of the disease epidemiology, however most conventional approaches to trace WMW migrations are based on capturing, tagging (mostly ringing or GPS devices) and their re-capturing to link the departure and arrival places.Stable isotope ratios in metabolically inert tissues (feathers, beaks, claws) reflect the ratios present at the point of intake (drinking or feeding), thus enabling for tracing bird origins at stopover places.Molecular diagnostic platforms such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) enable for accurate detection of the AIVs in the feces of infected birds. Similar technologies (genetic sequencing) can be used to determine the bird species through DNA barcoding. Simple and easy collection of feather and fecal samples at the stopover places may generate a full information package on which species of WMW carries the AIVs (PCR+DNA barcoding on the feces), as well as the origin of these species (SI+DNA barcoding on the feathers). Therefore, such approaches enable for research on the epidemiology and the ecology of the AIVs in WMW using a non-invasive platform, which does not require capturing of WMW. This manuscript discusses the potentials of these approaches to monitor the AIVs in WMW.

Diversity and Evolution of Butterfly Wing Patterns: An Integrative Approach

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789811049552 9789811049569 Year: Pages: 320 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4956-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-24 11:57:27
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This book facilitates an integrative understanding of the development, genetics and evolution of butterfly wing patterns. To develop a deep and realistic understanding of the diversity and evolution of butterfly wing patterns, it is essential and necessary to approach the problem from various kinds of key research fields such as “evo-devo,” “eco-devo,” ”developmental genetics,” “ecology and adaptation,” “food plants,” and “theoretical modeling.”The past decade-and-a-half has seen a veritable revolution in our understanding of the development, genetics and evolution of butterfly wing patterns. In addition, studies of how environmental and climatic factors affect the expression of color patterns has led to increasingly deeper understanding of the pervasiveness and underlying mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity. In recognition of the great progress in research on the biology, an international meeting titled “Integrative Approach to Understanding the Diversity of ButterflyWing Patterns (IABP-2016)” was held at Chubu University, Japan in August 2016. This book consists of selected contributions from the meeting. Authors include main active researchers of new findings of corresponding genes as well as world leaders in both experimental and theoretical approaches to wing color patterns.The book provides excellent case studies for graduate and undergraduate classes in evolution, genetics/genomics, developmental biology, ecology, biochemistry, and also theoretical biology, opening the door to a new era in the integrative approach to the analysis of biological problems.

Keywords

nymphalid --- ecology --- evolution --- genetics --- mimicry

Ranaviruses: Lethal Pathogens of Ectothermic Vertebrates

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783319137544 9783319137551 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-13755-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Therapeutics --- Biotechnology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-12 15:59:14
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This is the first book on ranaviruses. Ranaviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that cause hemorrhagic disease in amphibians, reptiles, and fish. They have caused mass die-offs of ectothermic vertebrates in wild and captive populations around the globe. There is evidence that this pathogen is emerging and responsible for population declines in certain locations. Considering that amphibians and freshwater turtles are suitable hosts and the most imperiled vertebrate taxa in the world, ranaviruses can have significant impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem function. Additionally, many fish that are raised in aquaculture facilities and traded internationally are suitable hosts; thus, the potential economic impact of ranaviruses is significant. Ranaviruses also serve as a model for replication and gene function of large double-stranded DNA viruses. There is an urgent need to assemble the contemporary information on ranaviruses and provide guidance on how to assess their threats in populations. Through the Global Ranavirus Consortium, 24 experts from six countries were organize to write this volume, the first book on ranaviruses. The book begins with a discussion on the global extent of ranaviruses, case histories of infection and disease in ectothermic vertebrates, and current phylogeny. Basic principles of ranavirus ecology and evolution are covered next, with a focus on host-pathogen interactions and how the virus emerges in its environment. There are two chapters that will discuss the molecular biology of ranaviruses, host response to infection, and the genes responsible for immune system evasion. One chapter establishes standards for testing for infection and diagnosing ranaviral disease. The book ends by providing guidance on how to design ranavirus surveillance studies and analyze data to determine risk, and discussing the role of the Global Ranavirus Consortium in organizing research and outreach activities.

Agricultural Implications of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident: The First Three Years

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9784431558262 9784431558286 Year: Pages: 263 DOI: 10.1007/978-4-431-55828-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Manufactures --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Environmental Technology --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Business and Management --- Nuclear Physics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-27 16:45:07
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This book reports the results from on-site research into radioactive cesium contamination in various agricultural systems affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident that occurred in March 2011. This is the second volume from the research groups formed in the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences of The University of Tokyo who have published the initial data in their first volume. In this book, additional data collected in the subsequent years are presented to show how the radioactivity level in agricultural products and their growing environments have changed with time. The data clarify the route by which radioactive materials entered agricultural products and their movement among different components (e.g., soil, water, and trees) within an environmental system (e.g., forests). The book consists of various topics, including radioactivity inspection of food products; decontamination trials for rice and livestock production; the state of contamination in wild animals and birds, trees, mushrooms, and timber; the dynamics of radioactivity distribution in mountain and paddy fields; damage incurred by the forestry and fishery industries; and the change in consumers’ minds. The last chapter introduces a real-time radioisotope imaging system, the forefront technique to visualize actual movement of cesium in soil and in plants. This is the only book to provide systematic data about the actual change of radioactivity, and thus is of great value for all researchers who wish to understand the effect of radioactive fallout on agriculture. The project is ongoing; the research groups continue their work in the field for further evaluation of the long-term effects.

Rangeland Systems: Processes, Management and Challenges

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Book Series: Springer Series on Environmental Management ISSN: 0172-6161 ISBN: 9783319467078 9783319467092 Year: Pages: 661 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-46709-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-26 18:01:06
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This book provides an unprecedented synthesis of the current status of scientific and management knowledge regarding global rangelands and the major challenges that confront them. It has been organized around three major themes. The first summarizes the conceptual advances that have occurred in the rangeland profession. The second addresses the implications of these conceptual advances to management and policy. The third assesses several major challenges confronting global rangelands in the 21st century. This book will compliment applied range management textbooks by describing the conceptual foundation on which the rangeland profession is based. It has been written to be accessible to a broad audience, including ecosystem managers, educators, students and policy makers. The content is founded on the collective experience, knowledge and commitment of 80 authors who have worked in rangelands throughout the world. Their collective contributions indicate that a more comprehensive framework is necessary to address the complex challenges confronting global rangelands. Rangelands represent adaptive social-ecological systems, in which societal values, organizations and capacities are of equal importance to, and interact with, those of ecological processes. A more comprehensive framework for rangeland systems may enable management agencies, and educational, research and policy making organizations to more effectively assess complex problems and develop appropriate solutions.

Bird Species

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Book Series: Fascinating Life Sciences ISBN: 9783319916897 Year: Pages: 266 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-91689-7 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Biology --- Zoology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:16
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The average person can name more bird species than they think, but do we really know what a bird “species” is? This open access book takes up several fascinating aspects of bird life to elucidate this basic concept in biology. From genetic and physiological basics to the phenomena of bird song and bird migration, it analyzes various interactions of birds – with their environment and other birds. Lastly, it shows imminent threats to birds in the Anthropocene, the era of global human impact. Although it seemed to be easy to define bird species, the advent of modern methods has challenged species definition and led to a multidisciplinary approach to classifying birds. One outstanding new toolbox comes with the more and more reasonably priced acquisition of whole-genome sequences that allow causative analyses of how bird species diversify. Speciation has reached a final stage when daughter species are reproductively isolated, but this stage is not easily detectable from the phenotype we observe. Culturally transmitted traits such as bird song seem to speed up speciation processes, while another behavioral trait, migration, helps birds to find food resources, and also coincides with higher chances of reaching new, inhabitable areas. In general, distribution is a major key to understanding speciation in birds. Examples of ecological speciation can be found in birds, and the constant interaction of birds with their biotic environment also contributes to evolutionary changes. In the Anthropocene, birds are confronted with rapid changes that are highly threatening for some species. Climate change forces birds to move their ranges, but may also disrupt well-established interactions between climate, vegetation, and food sources. This book brings together various disciplines involved in observing bird species come into existence, modify, and vanish. It is a rich resource for bird enthusiasts who want to understand various processes at the cutting edge of current research in more detail. At the same time it offers students the opportunity to see primarily unconnected, but booming big-data approaches such as genomics and biogeography meet in a topic of broad interest. Lastly, the book enables conservationists to better understand the uncertainties surrounding “species” as entities of protection.

Agricultural Implications of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

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ISBN: 9784431543275 9784431543282 Year: Pages: 214 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-54328-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Manufactures --- Nuclear Physics --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Agriculture (General) --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Business and Management --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2013-09-04 12:15:49
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Following the Fukushima nuclear accident, a large volume of monitoring data has been collected about the soil, air, dust, and seawater, along with data about an immense number of foods supplied to the market. Little is known, however, about the effect of radioactive fallout on agriculture, information about which is vital. Although more than 80% of the damaged area is related to agriculture, in situ information specifically for agriculture is scarce. This book provides data about the actual movement and accumulation of radioactivity in the ecological system—for example, whether debris deposited on mountains can be a cause of secondary contamination, under what conditions plants accumulate radioactive cesium in their edible parts, and how radioactivity is transferred from hay to milk. Because agriculture is so closely related to nature, many specialists with different areas of expertise must be involved in answering these questions. In the case of rice, researchers in rice cultivation as well as in soil, hydrology, and radioactivity measurement are working together to reveal the paths or accumulation of radioactivity in the field. For this purpose, the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences of The University of Tokyo has diverse facilities available throughout Japan, including farmlands, forests, and meadowlands. Many academic staff members have formed groups to conduct on-site research, with more than 40 volunteers participating. This book presents the data collected from the only project being systematically carried out across Japan after the Fukushima accident.

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