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The Practice of Industrial Policy: Government—Business Coordination in Africa and East Asia

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ISBN: 9780198796954 Year: Pages: 336 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198796954.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: WIDER Studies in Development Economics
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-27 11:01:30
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Much of the information relevant to policy formulation for industrial development is held by the private sector, not by public officials. There is, therefore, fairly broad agreement in the development literature that some form of structured engagement—often referred to as close or strategic coordination—between the public and private sectors is needed, to assist in the design of appropriate policies and provide feedback on their implementation. There is less agreement on how that engagement should be structured, how its objectives be defined, and how success be measured. In fact, the academic literature provides little practical guidance on how governments interested in developing such a framework should go about doing it. The burden of this lack of guidance falls most heavily on Africa, where—despite twenty years of growth—lack of structural transformation has slowed job creation and the pace of poverty reduction. In 2014, the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) and United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER) launched a joint research project: The Practice of Industrial Policy. The aim is to help African policy makers develop better coordination between public and private sectors in order to identify the constraints to faster structural transformation and design, implement, and monitor policies to remove them. This book, written by national researchers and international experts, presents the results of that research by combining a set of analytical ‘framing’ essays on close coordination with case studies of successful and unsuccessful efforts at close coordination in Africa and in comparator countries.

Manufacturing Transformation: Comparative Studies of Industrial Development in Africa and Emerging Asia

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Book Series: WIDER Studies in Development Economics ISBN: 9780198776987 Year: Pages: 336 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198776987.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: UNU WIDER
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-05 11:01:21
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While it is possible for economies to grow based on abundant land or natural resources, more often structural change—the shift of resources from low-productivity to high-productivity sectors—is the key driver of economic growth. Structural transformation is vital for Africa. The region’s much-lauded growth turnaround since 1995 has been the result of fewer economic policy mistakes, robust commodity prices, and new discoveries of natural resources. At the same time, Africa’s economic structure has changed very little. Primary commodities and natural resources still account for the bulk of exports. Industry is most often the leading driver of structural transformation. Africa’s experience with industrialization over the past thirty years has been disappointing. In 2010, sub-Saharan Africa’s average share of manufacturing value added in GDP was 10 per cent, unchanged from the 1970s. In fact the share of medium- and high-tech goods in manufacturing production has been falling since the mid-1990s. Per capita manufactured exports are less than 10 per cent of the developing country average. Consequently, Africa’s industrial transformation has yet to take place. This book presents results of comparative country-based research that sought to answer a seemingly simple but puzzling question: why is there so little industry in Africa? It brings together detailed country case studies of industrial policies and industrialization outcomes in eleven countries, conducted by teams of national researchers in partnership with experts on industrial development. It provides the most comprehensive description and analysis available of the contemporary industrialization experience in low-income Africa.

Made in Africa:

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ISBN: 9780198739890 Year: Pages: 374 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198739890.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-07-30 23:58:36
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This book presents the findings of original field research into the design, practice, and varied outcomes of industrial policy in three sectors in Ethiopia, covering export-oriented and import-substitution industries. The three sectors are cement, leather and leather products, and floriculture. Given that there is a single industrial strategy, why do its outcomes vary across sectors? To what extent is this a function of the specific market and political economy features of each sector? The book examines industrial structures and associated global value chains to demonstrate the challenges faced by African firms in international markets. Part of the book’s relevance is the light it throws on the whole question of industrial policy in low-income countries, the subject of renewed discussion among development economists and organizations in recent years. The findings are also discussed in the light of the history of, and the history of thought about, industrialization. Insights for researchers and policymakers emerge from the analysis of failures and successes in the three industrial sectors. The book also challenges prevailing wisdom on how much and what kind of state intervention is required to support transformational industrial policy in Africa. Among other things, the book highlights the significance for policy design of maximizing linkage effects, backward and forward, from particular industries and activities.

Family and Business during the Industrial Revolution

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ISBN: 9780198786023 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198786023.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:17
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Small businesses were at the heart of the economic growth and social transformation that characterized the Industrial Revolution in Britain. In towns across north-west England, shops and workshops dominated the streetscape, and helped to satisfy an increasing desire for consumer goods. Yet, despite their significance, we know surprisingly little about these firms and the people who ran them, for, while those engaged in craft-based manufacturing, retailing, and allied trades constituted a significant proportion of the urban population, they have been generally overlooked by historians. Instead, our view of the world of business is more usually taken up by narratives of particularly successful firms, and especially those involved in new modes of production. By examining some of the forgotten businesses of the Industrial Revolution, and the men and women who worked in them, this book presents a largely unfamiliar commercial world. Its approach, which spans economic, social, and cultural history, as well as encompassing business history and the histories of the emotions, space, and material culture, alongside studies of personal testimony, testatory practice, and property ownership, tests current understandings of gender, work, family, class, and power in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. It provides us with new insights into the lives of ordinary men and women in trade, whose relatively mundane lives are easily overlooked, but who were central to the story of a pivotal period in British history.

How Nations Learn

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ISBN: 9780198841760 Year: Pages: 368 DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198841760.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-07-30 23:58:04
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Authored by eminent scholars, the volume aims to generate interest and debate among policymakers, practitioners, and researchers on the complexity of learning and catch-up, particularly for twenty-first century late-late developers. The volume explores technological learning at the firm level, policy learning by the state, and the cumulative and multifaceted nature of the learning process, which encompasses learning by doing, by experiment, emulation, innovation, and leapfrogging. Why is catch-up rare? And why have some nations succeeded while others failed? What are the prospects for successful learning and catch-up in the twenty-first century? These are pertinent questions that require further research and in-depth analysis. The World Bank estimates that out of the 101 middle-income economies in 1960, only thirteen became high income by 2008. This volume examines how nations learn by reviewing key structural and contingent factors that contribute to dynamic learning and catch-up. Rejecting both the one-size-fits-all approach and the agnosticism that all nations are unique and different, the volume uses historical as well as firm-level, industry-level, and country-level evidence and experiences to identify the sources and drivers of successful learning and catch-up and the lessons for late-latecomer countries. Building on the latecomer-advantage perspective, the volume shows that what is critical for dynamic learning and catch-up is not learning per se but the intensity of learning, robust industrial policies, and the pace and direction of learning. Equally important are the passion to learn, long-term strategic vision, and understanding the context in which successful learning occurs.

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