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Resetting the International Monetary (Non)System

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Book Series: WIDER Studies in Development Economics ISBN: 9780198718116 Year: Pages: 304 DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198718116.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: UNU WIDER
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-05 11:01:51
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This book provides an analysis of the global monetary system and the necessary reforms that it should undergo to play an active role in the twenty-first century. As its title indicates, its basic diagnosis is that it is an ad hoc framework rather than a coherent system—a ‘non-system’—which evolved after the breakdown of the original Bretton Woods arrangement in the early 1970s. The book places a special focus on the asymmetries that emerging and developing countries face within the current system, and therefore on the development dimensions of the global monetary system and of global monetary reform. The book proposes a comprehensive yet evolutionary reform of the system that includes: (i) provision of international liquidity through a system that mixes the multi-currency arrangement with a more active use of the IMF’s Special Drawing Rights (SDRs), the only true global currency that has been created; (ii) stronger mechanisms of macroeconomic policy cooperation, including greater cooperation in exchange rate management, and freedom to manage capital flows as a complement to counter-cyclical macroeconomic policy and other instruments of financial regulation; (iii) additional automatic balance-of-payments financing facilities, and the complementary use of swap and regional arrangements; (iv) a multilateral sovereign debt workout mechanism; and (v) major reforms of the system’s governance, based on a more representative apex organization, more equitable participation of emerging and developing countries in decision-making, and a network of global, regional, inter-regional, and sub-regional organizations.

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ISBN: 9780190685515 9780190685515 Year: Pages: 504 DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190685515.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Subject: Law --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-25 11:01:02
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In June 2013, Edward Snowden revealed a secret US government program that collected records on every phone call made in the country. Further disclosures followed, detailing mass surveillance by the UK as well. Journalists and policymakers soon began discussing large-scale programs in other countries. Over two years before the Snowden leaks began, Cate and Dempsey had started researching systematic collection. Leading an initiative sponsored by The Privacy Projects, they commissioned a series of country reports, asking national experts to uncover what they could about government demands that telecommunications providers and other private-sector companies disclose information about their customers in bulk. Their initial research found disturbing indications of systematic access in countries around the world. These programs, often undertaken in the name of national security, were cloaked in secrecy and largely immune from oversight, posing serious threats to personal privacy. After the Snowden leaks, the project morphed into something more ambitious: an effort to explore what should be the rules for government access to data and how companies should respond to those demands within the framework of corporate responsibility. This volume concludes the nearly six-year project. It assembles 12 country reports, updated to reflect recent developments. One chapter presents both descriptive and normative frameworks for analyzing national surveillance laws. Others examine international law, human rights law, and oversight mechanisms. Still others explore the concept of accountability and the role of encryption in shaping the surveillance debate. In their conclusion, Cate and Dempsey offer recommendations for both government and industry.

Negotiating Internet Governance

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ISBN: 9780198833079 Year: Pages: 228 DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198833079.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung - 10BP12_185531
Subject: Computer Science --- Law
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-24 11:21:03
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What is at stake for how the Internet continues to evolve is the preservation of its integrity as a single network. In practice, its governance is neither centralised nor unitary; it is piecemeal and fragmented, with authoritative decision-making coming from different sources simultaneously: governments, businesses, international organisations, technical and academic experts, and civil society. Historically, the conditions for their interaction were rarely defined beyond basic technical coordination, due at first to the academic freedom granted to the researchers developing the network and, later on, to the sheer impossibility of controlling mushrooming Internet initiatives. Today, the search for global norms and rules for the Internet continues, be it for cybersecurity or artificial intelligence, amid processes fostering the supremacy of national approaches or the vitality of a pluralist environment with various stakeholders represented. This book provides an incisive analysis of the emergence and evolution of global Internet governance, unpacking the complexity of more than 300 governance arrangements, influential debates and political negotiations over four decades. Highly accessible, this book breaks new ground through a wide empirical exploration and a new conceptual approach to governance enactment in global issue domains. A tripartite framework is employed for revealing power dynamics, relying on: a) an extensive database of mechanisms of governance for the Internet at the global and regional level; b) an in-depth analysis of the evolution of actors and priorities over time; and c) a key set of dominant practices observed in the Internet governance communities. It explains continuity and change in Internet-related negotiations, opening up new directions for thinking and acting in this field.

Applicable Law in Investor-State Arbitration

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Book Series: Oxford monographs in international law ISBN: 9780199656950 Year: Pages: 343 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199656950.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: OAPEN-UK
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2013-09-21 22:37:44
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This book examines the law, national and/or international, that arbitral tribunals apply on the merits to settle disputes between foreign investors and host states. In light of the freedom that the disputing parties and the arbitrators have when designating the applicable law, and because of the hybrid nature of legal relationship between investors and states, there is significant interplay between the national and the international legal order in investor-state arbitration. The book contains a comprehensive analysis of the relevant jurisprudence, legal instruments, and scholarship surrounding arbitral practice with respect to the application of national law and international law. It investigates the awards in which tribunals referred to consistency between the legal orders, and suggests alternatives to the traditional doctrines of monism and dualism to explain the relationship between the national and the international legal order. The book also addresses the territorialized or internationalized nature of the tribunals; relevant choice-of-law rules and methodologies; and the scope of the arbitration agreement, including the possibility of host states presenting counterclaims in investment treaty arbitration. Ultimately, it argues that in investor–state arbitration, national and international law do not only coexist but may be applied simultaneously; they are also interdependent, each complementing and informing the other both indirectly and directly for a larger common good: enforcement of rights and obligations regardless of their national or international origin.

The Hidden Histories of War Crimes Trials

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ISBN: 9780199671144 Year: Pages: 464 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199671144.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: OAPEN-UK
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2013-12-06 22:31:34
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Several instances of war crimes trials are familiar to all scholars, but in order to advance understanding of the development of international criminal law, it is important to provide a full range of evidence from less-familiar trials. This book therefore provides a comprehensive overview, uncovering and exploring some of the lesser-known war crimes trials that have taken place in a variety of contexts: international and domestic, northern and southern, historic and contemporary. It analyses these trials with a view to recognizing institutional innovations, clarifying doctrinal debates, and identifying their general relevance to contemporary international criminal law. At the same time, the book recognizes international criminal law's history of suppression or sublimation: What stories has the discipline refused to tell? What stories have been displaced by the ones it has told? Has international criminal law's framing or telling of these stories excluded other possibilities? And — perhaps most important of all — how can recovering the lost stories and imagining new narrative forms reconfigure the discipline?

The Political Economy of Bank Regulation in Developing Countries

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ISBN: 9780198841999 Year: Pages: 416 DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198841999.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Subject: Political Science --- Economics --- History --- Migration
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-24 23:57:51
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Why do governments in some developing countries implement international standards, while others do not? Focusing on the politics of bank regulation, this book develops a new framework to explain regulatory interdependence between countries in the core and the periphery of the global financial system. Drawing on in-depth analysis of eleven countries across Africa, Asia, and Latin America, it shows how financial globalization generates strong reputational and competitive incentives for developing countries to converge on international standards. Regulatory interdependence is generated by relations between regulators, politicians, and banks within developing countries, and international actors including investors, peer regulators, and international financial institutions. We explain why it is that some configurations of domestic politics and forms of integration into global finance generate convergence with international standards, while other configurations lead to divergence. This book contributes to our understanding of the ways in which governments and firms in the core of global finance powerfully shape regulatory politics in the periphery, and the ways in which peripheral governments and firms manoeuvre within the constraints and opportunities created by financial globalization

New Sources of Development Finance

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ISBN: 9780199278558 Year: Pages: 268 DOI: 10.1093/0199278555.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: UNU WIDER
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-05-29 00:11:23
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"As their Millennium Development Goals, world leaders have pledged by 2015 to halve the number of people living in extreme poverty and hunger, to achieve universal primary education, to reduce child mortality, to halt the spread of HIV/AIDS, and to halve the number of people without safe drinking water. Achieving these goals requires a large increase in the flow of financial resources to developing countries – double the present development assistance from abroad. In examining innovative ways to secure these resources, this book, which is part of the UNU–WIDER Studies in Development Economics series, sets out a framework for the economic analysis of different sources of funding and applying the tools of modern public economics to identify the key issues. It examines the role of new sources of overseas aid, considers the fiscal architecture and the lessons that can be learned from federal fiscal systems, asks how far increased transfers impose a burden on donors, and investigates how far the raising of resources can be separated from their use. In turn, the book examines global environmental taxes (such as a carbon tax), the taxation of currency transactions (the Tobin tax), a development‐focused allocation of Special Drawing Rights by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the UK Government proposal for an International Finance Facility, increased private donations for development purposes, a global lottery (or premium bond), and increased remittances by emigrants. In each case, it considers the feasibility of the proposal and the resources that it can realistically raise, and offers new perspectives and insights into these new and controversial proposals. "

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