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Buddha in Beton

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ISBN: 9783946198208 9783946198239 9783946198215 9783946198222 Year: Pages: 522 DOI: 10.16994/bag Language: German
Publisher: Modern Academic Publishing
Subject: Religion --- Philosophy --- Architecture --- History of arts
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-09 11:01:56
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Abstract

emple. And only because temple architecture – as well as paintings, statues, gardens etc. – shows the presence of the Buddha in this way does it become a religious place where the Buddha is actually present. The final discussion of this study puts these Buddhist teachings in a dialogue with modern aesthetic architectural concepts argued by temple architects. The contrasting points of view make it clear that the explicitly Buddhist idea of Buddhist temple architecture can not be grasped by aesthetics, because its purpose is to show the invisible presence of the Buddha and not to be a sensual (i.e. aesthetic) experience of the visible object itself in the first place. However, aesthetic concepts of art have become common in Japan since the late 19th century. They are the foundation of the described new ways in which temples were built and designed since then. One indication for the impact of aesthetics are Japanese words like shimboru シンボル/shōchō 象徴 (symbol) or fun’iki 雰囲気 (atmosphere) which are used by architects to describe their temple architecture and matters of design. These words were formed around the turn of the century to express European concepts of art and aesthetics, since before that these words and ideas simply did not exist in Japan. And it is only since then, that temples were perceived as aesthetic symbols with various meanings that can be defined by an architect, and that they have a certain atmosphere which should be designed for making visitors feeling comfortable. Now it is the architect himself who gives meaning to its work and who is responsible for a nice spatial experience. But none of these architects is talking about himself becoming Buddha by building a temple.
So not only the architectural appearance and construction of Buddhist temples have changed enormously throughout the last 150 years, but also the task of building itself. There has always been change in appearance and construction throughout the history of Buddhism and in the different Buddhist cultures, but the redefinition of the temple as an architectural piece of art is a very recent development in Japan and the actual new idea causing these dramatic architectural changes.
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“Colonised by Wankers”

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ISBN: 9783946198284 9783946198314 9783946198291 9783946198307 Year: Pages: 260 DOI: 10.16994/baj Language: English
Publisher: Modern Academic Publishing
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-09 11:01:56
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"Has Scotland suffered from colonial oppression by England for the last 300 years? While historiography may give an answer in the negative,
this study reveals that the contemporary Scottish novel is
haunted by strong feelings, marked by perceptions of abjection and
inferiorisation in response to constructing the English as dominating.
Drawing from an unprecedented corpus of contemporary Scottish
novels, this study explores the postcolonial in Scottish fiction in
order to investigate the underlying discursive power relations that
shape the Scottish literary imagination. The study consequently
demonstrates that the analysis of Scottish national identity profits
from this new angle of interpretation of the Scottish novel as postcolonial.
The analysis of discourses such as those of gender, class,
space and place, and race reveals how the construction of the Scottish
as marginalised permeates the width of the contemporary Scottish
novel, by referring to diverse examples, such as James Kelman’s
How late it was, how late or genre fiction such as Ian Rankin’s Set in
Darkness. Thus, this study provides an insightful reading in the wake
of current political developments such as the Scottish independence
referendum."

Mehrsprachigkeit im Spiegel des Buchdrucks: Das spanische Italien im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert

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ISBN: 9783946198086 9783946198116 9783946198093 9783946198109 Year: Pages: 436 DOI: 10.16994/bad Language: German
Publisher: Modern Academic Publishing
Subject: History --- Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-19 11:01:06
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During the sixteenth and seventeenth century large parts of Italy were under Spanish dominion, the consequence of which was a linguistic contact that lasted over 200 years. However, due to the traditionally tight link between Italian language historiography and national historiography, the multilingual communicative space of Spanish Italy has only recently become an object of research. By focusing on four Spanish-dominated areas – the two metropolises of Naples (Regno di Napoli) and Milan (Milanesado), as well as the two islands of Sicily (Regno di Sicilia) and Sardinia (Regno di Sardegna) – the present work therefore presents a fundamental, extensive, and comparative case study of the history of plurilingualism and of letterpress printing in Italia spagnola. For the first time, even methodologically, letterpress printing will be considered as an indicator of plurilingualism, and not simply as a gauge for Tuscanisation, as scholars have previously concluded. The corpus, which has been elaborated on the basis of a specifically developed online title-database consisting of over 3.000 Spanish, bi- and multilingual printed works, is analyzed by combining quantification and qualification methods. The statistical evaluation of book production and distribution of languages and domains associated therewith have been integrated, or rather validated, by qualitative comments on exemplary single works. Herein, the following questions have been examined: How is multilingualism generally, and with regard to the Spanish language in particular, reflected in book production? How often and in which domains of discourse is Spanish used? Which profiles of competence of the producers (authors and printers) and the recipients can be qualitatively traced through single printed works? What evidence of the conventionalization of multilingualism in the form of linguistic teaching material can be provided? Which plurilinguistic practices can be reconstructed on the basis of the prints? Is bilingualism or multilingualism reflected on (and eventually how), and, if so, how is it discussed and assessed? How does the respective communicative space, characterized by the constant presence of the Spanish language, configure itself in the consciousness of the communicants within the field of perceptive linguistics? 
Thus, the aim was to investigate the degree of Hispanicization of Spanish Italy on the basis of the quantified printed language, and to discuss the practices of multilingualism, the attitudes towards the Spanish language, and how plurilingualism was reflected in selected printed works and their paratexts.
The overall segment of the Spanish book production can be defined as a marginal phenomenon with a limited target group, and therefore multilingualism in Spanish Italy, when considered through letterpress printing, assumes an elitist status. However, the respective empirical results of the four partial corpora offer prominent regional differences, with each of the four communicative spaces presenting with their own, specific profile of multilingualism. The contrast of the single cases thus leads to a typology between Spanish Sardinia and the other three areas. The case reconstructions furnish the evidence that Spanish Sardinia, for reasons beyond existing language politics, represents the exception, or rather, the extreme case of problem-focused plurilingualism and Hispanicization. The remaining three areas (Naples, Milan and Sicily) bundle to form a second type – on account of their indifference towards language diversity as well as their pragmatic, mostly implicit, conventionalized handling of multilingualism, they can be classified as normal cases of language contact.

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