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Smart machines, Remote Sensing, Precision Farming, Processes, Mechatronic, Materials and Policies for Safety and Health Aspects

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ISBN: 9783038428657 9783038428664 Year: Pages: VIII, 256 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-18 13:24:56
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The introduction of "smart machines" for agricultural operations will allow several advantages, such as an increase in their efficiencies, a reduction in environmental impacts and a reduction of work injuries. There are partially- and fully-automatic devices for most aspects of agricultural functions, from seeding and planting to harvesting and postharvesting, from spraying to livestock management, and so onThe objectives of this book are: study of man–machine dialogue systems; analysis on towed or carried machines: forestry chippers, manure spreaders, round balers and others; safety and health management system design and engineering; safety and health monitoring sensors and sensing; data-driven methods for anomaly detection, diagnosis and prognosis; precision farming; mechatronic; automotive and agriculture machinery applications; engineering of hybrid and integrated systems and their efficiency maximization, especially for safety and health purposes, aimed to injuries and accidents reduction, use of remote sensor and mechatronic systems applied in several aspects.

Carboxylic Acid Production

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ISBN: 9783038425526 9783038425533 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-553-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-04 15:30:04
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Carboxylic acids are truly central compounds in cellular metabolism. Carbon dioxide is captured from the atmosphere through formation of carboxylic groups and is also released, in part, by decarboxylation reactions. The reactivity of the carboxylic group with amino- or hydroxyl-groups enables the formation of peptide and ester bonds. The functionality of the carboxylic group is also of huge importance in our industrial world for a wide range of applications. The loosely bound hydrogen provides weak acid functionality, much desired for food industry applications in preservatives and flavour compounds. Citric acid is one of our oldest industrial fermentation products. The presence of two carboxylic groups, or a combination of one carboxylic group and another functional group, make the compounds interesting building blocks for polymer production. A number of carboxylic acids, including, e.g., lactic, succinic, 3-hydroxypropionic and itaconic acids, have been identified and recognized as suitable platform chemicals for a foreseen growing carbohydrate based economy. Economic margins are, however, tight when competing with petroleum based production, and production strains, fermentation technology and—not least—downstream processing, all need to be improved to enable viable commercial production.This Special issue will cover current developments within this exciting field. Topics will include: Fermentation physiology of natural carboxylic acid producers; screening and isolation of novel producers; metabolic engineering for improving intrinsic carboxylic acid production; metabolic engineering for expanding product range to non-endogenous carboxylic acids; production from lignocellulosic derived sugars or by-product streams; downstream processing for recovery of carboxylic acids; bioprocess design—including continuous processes and integration.All production organisms—fungi, yeasts, bacteria—are welcome.

Development and Application of Optical Coherence Tomography (Oct)

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ISBN: 9783038427445 9783038427438 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-743-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-16 08:34:07
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This special feature issue has been initiated to celebrate the 25th anniversary of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). In OCT, broad bandwidth light is used in order to produce cross sectional images of turbid and translucent samples with high axial resolution (in the order of a few µm). The imaging speed of OCT can be as high as several millions of depth scans (A-scans) per second which allows for various applications in different fields. This special feature issue consists of three overview papers covering OCT angiography, polarization-sensitive OCT and dental applications of OCT. Additional applications and the latest developments in OCT are covered in nine research papers. The latest developments presented in this issue include magnetomotive OCT, resonant Doppler OCT, full field OCT, new segmentation algorithms and depth range extension. Applications of OCT are widely spread and range from quality control in tooth prostheses and coating thickness measurements in the automotive industry to the assessment of degradation of coatings and alveolar dynamics.

Bioinspired Catechol- Based Systems: Chemistry and Applications

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ISBN: 9783038428138 9783038428145 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-814-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-16 13:15:34
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Catechols are widely found in nature taking part in a variety of biological functions, ranging from the aqueous adhesion of marine organisms to the storage of transition metal ions. Catechol-based natural and biomimetic molecules have thus been the focus of intense research aimed at mimicking and translating this nature-inspired chemistry into new functional materials and systems with tailored properties. The aim of this book is to present a concise survey of the state-of-the-art of basic and applied research on bioinspired catechol systems. It collects several cutting-edge contributions from leading laboratories with a unifying theme of biomimetic principles and approaches. It is hoped that both practitioners and newcomers to the field will by fascinated by the unique potential of biomimetics to pursue new research and innovative solutions in biomedicine and technology.

Advance of Polymers Applied to Biomedical Applications: Cell Scaffolds

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ISBN: 9783038970330 9783038970347 Year: Pages: 406 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-034-7 Language: englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-04 13:51:22
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Since Langer’s seminal work, polymers have been on every corner of tissue engineering. The roles of bioresorbable polymers, as a scaffold, are not merely structural, providing three-dimensional (3D) homing sites to cells, but also functional at their interface with the cells. The polymeric scaffolds actively act as both biochemical and physical cues for cell behaviors, such as adhesion, growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Polymers and cells could interact further with each other mutually, sensing and responding to the signals from the partner. Technological advances in this direction, including chemical modification of polymer scaffolds, highly cytocompatible hybrid materials/composites, dynamic scaffolds, control of juxtacrine interactions, and 3D bioprinting and microfluidic devices, ensure the advances in polymers as cell scaffolds. The detection and characterization methods for cell-material interactions and cell behaviors have been greatly improved, and new characterization techniques have emerged. Recent years have witnessed a quantum leap of progress in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, and this edited book illustrates some of the advances in polymers as cell scaffolds.

Gender and STEM: Understanding Segregation in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics

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ISBN: 9783038971474 9783038971481 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-148-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Sociology --- Arts in general --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-06 09:20:30
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This volume features thirteen original chapters on the causes and consequences of gender segregation in scientific, technical, engineering, and mathematics (“STEM”) occupations and fields of study. Although women have made great strides in equalizing access to labor markets and higher education, many STEM fields—particularly in the physical sciences and engineering—remain strongholds of gender segregation in the United States and other reputably gender-progressive societies. Policymakers, business leaders and activists have launched countless initiatives to diversify access to lucrative, high status occupations and ameliorate labor shortages that diminish innovation and competitiveness.Contributors to this volume apply diverse theoretical lenses and methodological approaches to understand the individual, interactional, organizational, and cultural dynamics that drive this segregation in the United States. Results show that the gender composition of scientific and technical fields varies a great deal over time and across organizational contexts and socio-demographic groups defined by race, ethnicity, class, and sexuality. But despite this variability, STEM work and STEM workers are widely presumed to be naturally and inevitably masculine. Research presented here reveals how these stereotypes combine with cultural beliefs about natural and fundamental differences between men and women to produce gendered aspirations and reinforce inequalities in the US scientific and technical workforce.

Keywords

Gender --- STEM --- Science --- Engineering --- Mathematics --- Segregation --- Inequality --- Women --- Men --- Race/ethnicity --- Sexuality

Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan II, 2017

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ISBN: 9783038426776 9783038426783 Year: Pages: 410 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-678-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-16 09:37:31
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As a result of our call in 2014 for submissions to a Special Issue, Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan in Marine Drugs, we are now pleased to tell you that this issue has been published. Twenty high class papers were included in this issue, which we now plan to publish as a book. In addition we now seek to publish a further Special Issue, Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan II, 2017, in Marine Drugs. As before, we plan to produce a strong, very exciting issue that will encompass breakthroughs in high value, scientific and industrial chitin and chitosan research. Despite significant advances in chitin and chitosan research since the 1970s, current overviews in recent publications involving chitin and chitosan research advances need reporting.

Hydrogels in Tissue Engineering

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ISBN: 9783038971214 9783038971221 Year: Pages: XII, 146 Language: Englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-24 16:21:01
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Hydrogels are the foundation of regenerative medicine as a supportive matrix for cell immobilization and growth factor delivery. The fate of implanted cells is mediated by cell-matrix interaction at multiple scales and timed-release of growth factors to guide the differentiation and maturation of cells. Recently, there has been great interest in hydrogels with a hierarchical structure that mimics the complex interaction of cells with a microenvironment that can locally release growth factors to specific cells. Related topics in this Special Issue include hydrogels with a hierarchical structure; hybrid, degradable, and load-bearing hydrogels; hydrogels for cell encapsulation, micro-patterning, microfluidic devices, biofabrication, and high-throughput screening; and hydrogels that modulate the body’s immune response.

Sustainability in Construction Engineering

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ISBN: 9783038971665 9783038971672 Year: Pages: 494 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-167-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-20 10:41:29
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The concept of sustainability has been expanding to all areas of economic activity, including construction. The Special Issue “Sustainability in Construction Engineering” provided a possibility for researchers to disseminate their new ideas and findings related to sustainable decisions in construction engineering as a complex discipline that involves designing, planning, construction and management of infrastructures. The topics raised interest of researchers all over the world and the current Special Issue received a great number of submissions from different institutions, countries and continents. In this Special Issue Reprint, 27 selected and peer-reviewed papers contribute to sustainable construction by offering technological, economic, social and environmental benefits through a variety of methodologies and tools, including fundamental decision-making models and methods as well as advanced multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods and techniques that proved to be very suitable for sustainability assessment. The papers are mainly concentrated in five areas: sustainable architecture; construction/reconstruction technology and sustainable construction materials; construction economics, including investments, supply, contracting and costs calculation; infrastructure planning and assessment; project risk perception, analysis and assessment with emphasis on sustainability. Due to its broad scope, the Special Issue Reprint expects to attract a large interest from the research community.

Water Soluble Polymers

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ISBN: 9783038426950 9783038426967 Year: Pages: 280 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-26 15:36:07
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This book on water soluble polymers (WSP) contains contributions that deal with this extremely popular area of scientific investigation in polymer science and engineering, both in academic and industrial environments. The book contents cover a wide variety of topics, starting from polymerization kinetics (emphasis on multicomponent systems), clarification of factor effects (for example, ionic strength, pH, monomer concentration, and how they influence important chain characteristics and properties), mathematical modelling, parameter estimation, and process design, and ending with applications (i.e., using the well characterized polymer molecules to deliver specific desirable properties for specific applications (hydrogels, cosmetics, drug release, flocculation, nanotechnology, enhanced oil recovery, polymer flooding, absorbents, crosslinking, and many others)). This book contains 17 very high quality contributions from author groups that span the globe and represent currently active researchers in the WSP area.

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english (12)

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2018 (15)