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Calibration/Validation of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometers and Applications

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ISBN: 9783038423188 9783038423195 Year: Pages: X, 548 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-319-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-17 12:17:45
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In a new era of global awareness and globalization, what’s happening around the world in real-time such as hurricanes, volcanic eruption, fires, drought, pollution, and other environmental and climate challenges are becoming increasingly more important and affect people’s lives. To meet these challenges, Earth observations from a new generation of satellites have now become available giving us unprecedented capabilities to monitor and study our planet. With global coverage twice daily for the next several decades, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometers on polar orbiting satellites provide rich and publically available data sets for a large number of land, atmosphere, and ocean applications, including the monitoring of aerosols, cloud properties, radiation budget, sea surface temperature, ocean color, active fire, albedo, snow and ice, vegetation, land use/land cover, night-lights from human activities, and natural disasters. Calibration and validation of these satellite observations are essential to ensure the quality, accuracy, precision, and stability of the data for the applications. This book will review recent advances in satellite optical sensor calibration and validation methodologies, algorithms, and techniques. Example calibration and validation of environmental data products are also discussed. It aims to serve all professionals, researchers, students, scientists alike in academics, industries, government, and beyond.

Oxidative Stress and Space Biology: An Organ-Based Approach

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ISBN: 9783038429036 9783038429043 Year: Pages: VIII, 182 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-04 14:50:06
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Technological advances now allow the planning of deep space exploration missions with the aim to discover new habitats for humankind. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has spearheaded this effort and the research into the identification of risks to crew members associated with such lengthy missions. Exciting work from a multitude of investigators across the US, Europe and Japan have identified oxidative damage as a significant risk to major organs that could pose a threat to the health of the astronauts and the success of the mission. This Special Issue of IJMS is dedicated to providing a comprehensive overview of the identified risks and focus on how oxidative stress specifically could impact major organ systems when exposed to space-relevant conditions such as cosmic/galactic radiation, solar particle events, hypogravity, hyperoxia and hypoxia or a combination of stressors.

Color Image Processing

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ISBN: 9783038429579 9783038429586 Year: Pages: X, 228 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-22 12:58:28
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What we call the "color" of an object is the result of a very complicated and not yet fully understood mechanism that involves the interaction between the light reflected by the object surface and the eyes, and the subsequent analysis of the retinal signal by the brain. For these reasons, research into color is intrinsically multidisciplinary and can be conducted from many points of view. The contributions presented in this book reflect this spirit, ranging from rigorous mathematical models of color geometry, to the psychophysical discussion of chromatic visual illusion, passing through state-of-the-art computational models in color enhancement. The idea behind this book is to give the reader an idea of the richness and variety of the research into color, proving it to be one of the most fascinating interdisciplinary research fields in contemporary science.

Geometry of Submanifolds and Homogeneous Spaces

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ISBN: 9783039280001 / 9783039280018 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-001-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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The present Special Issue of Symmetry is devoted to two important areas of global Riemannian geometry, namely submanifold theory and the geometry of Lie groups and homogeneous spaces. Submanifold theory originated from the classical geometry of curves and surfaces. Homogeneous spaces are manifolds that admit a transitive Lie group action, historically related to F. Klein's Erlangen Program and S. Lie's idea to use continuous symmetries in studying differential equations. In this Special Issue, we provide a collection of papers that not only reflect some of the latest advancements in both areas, but also highlight relations between them and the use of common techniques. Applications to other areas of mathematics are also considered.

Understanding Muslim Mobilities and Gender

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ISBN: 9783038427513 9783038427520 Year: Pages: 242 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-16 09:52:04
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Complex dynamics emerge around im/mobility that are related to social relations, identifications and power in many parts of the contemporary world. The manifold ways in which Muslims engage the possibilities of mobile lives show the tremendous creative potential of these practices. Coming from different disciplines and regional contexts, the contributors to this book investigate the myriad connections between Islamic concepts, Muslim practices, and gender and mobility theories. Their findings contribute to the mobility debate by revealing that im/mobile lives of people are deeply rooted in religious and/or gendered backgrounds and social structures and furthermore invite a critical rethinking of the concept of mobility itself.

Differential Geometrical Theory of Statistics

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ISBN: 9783038424253 9783038424246 Year: Pages: XIV, 458 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-425-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-12 12:20:37
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This Special Issue "Differential Geometrical Theory of Statistics" collates selected invited and contributed talks presented during the conference GSI'15 on "Geometric Science of Information" which was held at the Ecole Polytechnique, Paris-Saclay Campus, France, in October 2015 (Conference web site: http://www.see.asso.fr/gsi2015).

Power Transformer Diagnostics, Monitoring and Design Features

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ISBN: 9783038974413 / 9783038974420 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-442-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Electrical and Nuclear Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-09 11:54:22
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Power transformers are key components in electric power distribution and transmission systems, and it is essential that they function properly for many years. With increasing age, there are potential risks of extremely high monetary losses due to unexpected failures and outages. A simple solution would be to replace all aging and risky transformers at once with new ones. Such an approach is obviously not a fiscally realistic solution. The main objectives are to extend their service life and optimize their performance through increased availability. For these reasons, in the past decades transformer life management has gained an ever-increasing interest. The greatest challenges are related to the need for methods to assess their condition and life expectancy along with the improvement of transformers’ efficiency by noble designs and/or the application of new materials. This book covers some theoretical and practical developments with special emphasis on R&D trends in transformer diagnostics and monitoring. Graduate-level students and academics as well as scientists and engineers involved in power equipment design, diagnostics, and monitoring will benefit from this book.

Human Mobility, Spatiotemporal Context, and Environmental Health: Recent Advances in Approaches and Methods

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ISBN: 9783039211838 / 9783039211845 Year: Pages: 382 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-184-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Environmental health researchers have long used concepts like the neighborhood effect to assessing people’s exposure to environmental influences and the associated health impact. However, these are static notions that ignore people’s daily mobility at various spatial and temporal scales (e.g., daily travel, migratory movements, and movements over the life course) and the influence of neighborhood contexts outside their residential neighborhoods. Recent studies have started to incorporate human mobility, non-residential neighborhoods, and the temporality of exposures through collecting and using data from GPS, accelerometers, mobile phones, various types of sensors, and social media. Innovative approaches and methods have been developed. This Special Issue aims to showcase studies that use new approaches, methods, and data to examine the role of human mobility and non-residential contexts on human health behaviors and outcomes. It includes 21 articles that cover a wide range of topics, including individual exposure to air pollution, exposure and access to green spaces, spatial access to healthcare services, environmental influences on physical activity, food environmental and diet behavior, exposure to noise and its impact on mental health, and broader methodological issues such as the uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP) and the neighborhood effect averaging problem (NEAP). This collection will be a valuable reference for scholars and students interested in recent advances in the concepts and methods in environmental health and health geography.

Keywords

obesity --- built environment --- activity space --- regression analysis --- UGCoP --- foodscape exposure --- activity space --- commuting route --- space-time kernel density estimation --- time-weighted exposure --- Beijing --- cycling for transportation --- bike paths --- train stations --- subway stations --- adults --- Brazil --- fuel consumption --- emissions estimation --- GPS trace --- big data --- air pollution exposure --- human mobility --- mobile phone data --- dynamic assessment --- GIS --- GPS --- activity space --- environmental exposure --- the uncertain geographic context problem --- noise pollution --- mental disorders --- built environment --- multilevel model --- China --- PM concentrations --- crop residue burning --- correlation analysis --- interannual and seasonal variations --- China --- the neighborhood effect averaging problem (NEAP) --- human mobility --- environmental exposure --- the uncertain geographic context problem --- UGCoP --- car ownership --- car use --- built environment --- spatial autocorrelation --- multilevel Bayesian model --- geographical accessibility --- Healthcare services --- GIS --- E2SFCA --- CHAS --- Singapore --- environmental health --- food environment --- environmental context cube --- environmental context exposure index --- the uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP) --- GPS --- GIS --- healthcare accessibility --- catchment areas --- access probability --- taxi GPS trajectories --- E2SFCA --- greenspace exposure --- health --- human mobility --- physical activity --- structural equation modeling --- Guangzhou --- healthcare accessibility --- population demand --- geographic impedance --- the elderly --- urban planning --- 3SFCA --- real-time traffic --- crowdedness --- well-being experience --- long-distance walking --- collective leisure activity --- walking event --- urban leisure --- missing data --- spatial data --- imputation --- geographic imputation --- activity space --- ecological momentary assessment --- EMA --- walking --- active travel --- ageing --- physical environment --- personal projects --- activity space --- Public Participatory GIS (PPGIS) --- spatial accessibility --- multimodal network --- primary healthcare --- China --- 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic --- transport modes --- rail travel --- spatial spread --- quantile regression --- green space --- road traffic accidents --- cognitive aging --- activity space --- life-course perspectives --- environmental exposures

Topological Groups. Advances, Surveys, and Open Questions

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ISBN: 9783038976448 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-645-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-08 11:42:05
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Following the tremendous reception of our first volume on topological groups called ""Topological Groups: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow"", we now present our second volume. Like the first volume, this collection contains articles by some of the best scholars in the world on topological groups. A feature of the first volume was surveys, and we continue that tradition in this volume with three new surveys. These surveys are of interest not only to the expert but also to those who are less experienced. Particularly exciting to active researchers, especially young researchers, is the inclusion of over three dozen open questions. This volume consists of 11 papers containing many new and interesting results and examples across the spectrum of topological group theory and related topics. Well-known researchers who contributed to this volume include Taras Banakh, Michael Megrelishvili, Sidney A. Morris, Saharon Shelah, George A. Willis, O'lga V. Sipacheva, and Stephen Wagner.

Urban Land and Sustainable Development

ISBN: 9783038422617 9783038422600 Year: Pages: XVI, 368 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-28 09:15:21
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According to the 2014 revision of the World Urbanization Prospects by UN DESA, urbanization could add another 2.5 billion people to urban population by 2050, with close to 90 percent of the increase concentrated in Asia and Africa. This unprecedented increase in urban population not only poses challenges to providing jobs, housing, and infrastructure, but also exerts an increased pressure on urban land and sustainability. As land is a vital yet limited resource, sustainable management of urban land to cater the needs of this growing urban population is seen as one of the key challenges for achieving an economically efficient, socially equitable, and environmentally safe society. A key tenet for sustainable economic development and smart growth is promoting equitable sustainable urban land development and mitigating land use conflicts.While a large body of literature has dealt with both land use and sustainable development, the study of the interactive effects of these two remains limited. We need more sophisticated empirical studies examining processes, mechanisms, institutions, equity, and sustainability of urban land use. This book is based on a Special Issue published in Sustainability, and examines patterns, structure, and dynamics of urban land development and sustainability from multiple perspectives, in various contexts and at multiple dimensions (economic, social, political, developmental, and environmental, etc.). The research articles examine urban land development and sustainability arising from globalization, urbanization and institutional change.We have drawn papers from both developed and developing countries, with a focus on China due to the rapid rate of urbanization and change there. This book includes 14 articles, with various research emphases, methodologies and study areas, reflecting the inter-disciplinarily that characterizes urban and land use studies. The book has examined patterns and processes of urban land expansion and sprawl, and also studies new dimensions of urban space, including social media. These papers can provide us insights into the underlying structure and mechanisms of urban land expansion, and open new frontiers on the effects of urban land development on both the natural and human environments. We hope that this book will contribute to the understanding of urban land use patterns and processes, and their implications for sustainable development.

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