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Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J‑PARC)

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ISBN: 9783038974833 9783038974840 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-484-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-06 09:44:25
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The Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) is a landmark large user-facility producing neutron and muon beams. Those beams feed over 20 beamlines hosting world-class instruments for the investigation of matter across the disciplines of materials science, solid state physics and chemistry, biological and life sciences, geology, engineering, and their wider applications. Neutron and muons can probe matter in very peculiar ways. They are sensitive to magnetism and hydrogen atoms, can penetrate materials deeply or probe surfaces, and allow one to investigate the fundamental dynamics of the materials. In the past three to four decades, neutron scattering has largely contributed to the development of modern technology, such as computers, mobile phone technology, electo-chemistry, the transportation industry, and the pharmaceutic industry. MLF is a world leader in such characterization technology and serves yearly to about 700 research experiments conducted from users of 34 countries around the world. The present book describes technical details of the proton accelerator, the neutron spallation source, the muon facility, and all the beamlines with engineering realization, specifications, and relevant examples.

Flexible and Stretchable Electronics

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ISBN: 9783038424369 9783038424376 Year: Pages: VIII, 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-437-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-27 09:51:34
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Flexible and stretchable electronics are receiving tremendous attention as future electronics due to their flexibility and light weight, especially as applications in wearable electronics. Flexible electronics are usually fabricated on heat sensitive flexible substrates such as plastic, fabric or even paper, while stretchable electronics are usually fabricated from an elastomeric substrate to survive large deformation in their practical application. Therefore, successful fabrication of flexible electronics needs low temperature processable novel materials and a particular processing development because traditional materials and processes are not compatible with flexible/stretchable electronics. Huge technical challenges and opportunities surround these dramatic changes from the perspective of new material design and processing, new fabrication techniques, large deformation mechanics, new application development and so on. Here, we invited talented researchers to join us in this new vital field that holds the potential to reshape our future life, by contributing their words of wisdom from their particular perspective.

Advanced Nanoindentation in Materials

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ISBN: 9783038427490 9783038427506 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-750-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-16 13:26:33
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This Special Issue "Advanced Nanoindentation in Materials" contains some of the latest developments in the field of small-scale contact mechanics for a wide range of materials and biological cells. The featured manuscript revealed a new ultra-high strain rate nanoindentation method that will enable new scientific understanding of time-dependent material properties. The book also presents unique material properties of super alloys and other structural materials characterized by indentation methods. In addition to engineering materials, deformation behaviors of live cancer cells on sharp pillar structures were discussed in this book with the hope to stimulate interest in the mechanical contact behaviors of biological cells.

Fuzzy Techniques for Decision Making

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ISBN: 9783038428879 9783038428886 Year: Pages: VI, 404 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-18 13:55:26
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This book contains the successful invited submissions to a Special Issue of Symmetry in the subject area of “Fuzzy Techniques for Decision Making”. We invited contributions addressing novel techniques and tools for decision making (e.g., group or multi-criteria decision making) with notions that overcome the problem of finding the membership degree of each element as in Zadeh's original model. We could garner interesting articles on a variety of setups as well as applications. As a result, this book includes some novel techniques and tools for decision making, such as instrumental tools for analysis (correlation coefficients, similarity measures, aggregation operators) in various settings and novel methodological contributions (discrete optimization with fuzzy constraints, COMET, or fuzzy bi-matrix games) and applications (to project delivery systems, maintenance performance in industry, group emergencies, pedestrians flows, valuation of assets, water pollution control, or aquaculture enterprise sustainability). The published submissions cover models like fuzzy soft sets, hesitant fuzzy sets, (fuzzy) soft rough sets, neutrosophic sets, as well as other hybrid models.

Stimuli-Responsive Polymer Systems—Recent Manufacturing Techniques and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039214839 9783039214846 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-484-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Stimuli-responsive polymer systems can be defined as functional materials that show physical or chemical property changes in response to external stimuli such as temperature, radiation, chemical agents, pH, mechanical stress, and electric and magnetic fields. Recent developments in manufacturing techniques have facilitated the production of a wide range of stimuli-responsive polymer systems, such as micro- and nanoscale structures, with potential applications in soft sensors and actuators, smart textiles, soft robots, and artificial muscles. This book brings together the recent progress in manufacturing techniques, with particular emphasis on 3D and 4D printing and applications of stimuli-responsive polymer systems in biomedicine and soft robotics.

Liquid Crystals: From Modified Phases to Applications 2014

ISBN: 9783906980850 9783906980867 Year: Pages: 320
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 06:24:45
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Liquid crystals can be found in both synthetic and natural materials, which include DNA, cellulose, soaps, and cholesteryl esters. Liquid crystal basic concepts are an inspiration for various branches of physics, chemistry, materials science, mathematics, biology, and engineering. These concepts enable the synthesis and characterization of new materials with low-molecular weight, as well as of polymeric and elastomeric materials. Fundamental theories and models of liquid crystals have gained great importance in many scientific communities. The concepts of orientational order and cooperative molecular behavior have entered the actual basic knowledge of the bio-sciences community, and have contributed to the understanding of muscle function, cell division and membranes, and morphogenesis.Recent trends in liquid crystal research include topics such as polymer-modified anisotropic fluids, dispersions of liquid crystals with various nano-sized particles, topological defects in soft materials, new lyotropic systems, liquid crystal functionality in living systems, and the synthesis of liquid crystal based functional materials (e.g., photonic materials, organic plastic conductors, semiconductors, materials in sensors, materials used in switchable GHz applications, and materials for data storage), along with the study of these materials’ properties and applications.

Mechanics of Biomaterials

ISBN: 9783038421283 9783038421276 Year: Pages: 286 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-10 11:55:10
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The mechanical behavior of biomedical materials and biological tissues are important for their proper function. This holds true, not only for biomaterials and tissues whose main function is structural such as skeletal tissues and their synthetic substitutes, but also for other tissues and biomaterials. Moreover, there is an intimate relationship between mechanics and biology at different spatial and temporal scales. It is therefore important to study the mechanical behavior of both synthetic and livingbiomaterials. This Special Issue aims to serve as a forum for communicating the latest findings and trends in the study of the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials.

Soft Material-Enabled Electronics for Medicine, Healthcare, and Human-Machine Interfaces

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ISBN: 9783039282821 9783039282838 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-283-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Soft material-enabled electronics offer distinct advantage, over conventional rigid and bulky devices, for numerous wearable and implantable applications. Soft materials allow for seamless integration with skin and tissues due to enhanced mechanical flexibility and stretchability. Wearable devices, such as sensors, offer continuous, real-time monitoring of biosignals and movements, which can be applied in rehabilitation and diagnostics, among other applications. Soft implantable electronics offer similar functionalities, but with improved compatibility with human tissues. Biodegradable soft implantable electronics are also being developed for transient monitoring, such as in the weeks following surgery. To further advance soft electronics, materials, integration strategies, and fabrication techniques are being developed. This paper reviews recent progress in these areas, toward the development of soft material-enabled electronics for medicine, healthcare, and human-machine interfaces.

Keywords

soft materials --- flexible hybrid electronics --- wearable electronics --- stretchable electronics --- medicine --- healthcare --- human-machine interfaces --- point-of-care testing --- soft material-based channel --- PDMS optical filter --- smartphone-based biosensor --- chromogenic biochemical assay --- naked-eye detection --- implantable materials --- low-profile bioelectronics --- micro/nanofabrication --- medical devices --- biodegradable materials --- miniaturization --- bioresorbable electronics --- printing electronics techniques --- conductive inks --- flexible electronics --- carbon-based nano-materials --- bio-integrated electronics --- hardening sponge --- MR sponge --- 6 degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) MR haptic master --- RMIS (robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery) --- implantable devices --- optical waveguides --- optical fibers --- biocompatible --- biodegradable --- electroactive hydrogel --- polyvinyl alcohol --- cellulose nanocrystals --- freeze–thaw method --- actuation --- biodegradable electronics --- transient electronics --- soft biomedical electronics --- biodegradable materials --- silver nanowire --- graphene oxide --- polymer-dispersed liquid crystal --- smart window --- hybrid transparent conductive electrode --- conductive textile --- capacitive pressure sensor --- gait --- monitoring --- phase coordination index --- stretchable --- polydimethylsiloxane --- liquid-metal --- capacitor --- dysphagia --- swallowing --- tongue --- nitinol --- superelastic --- prosthesis --- soft materials --- wearable electronics --- implantable electronics --- biodegradable --- medical devices --- diagnostics --- health monitoring --- human-machine interfaces

Symmetry in Classical and Fuzzy Algebraic Hypercompositional Structures

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ISBN: 9783039287086 / 9783039287093 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-709-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This book is a collection of 12 innovative research papers in the field of hypercompositional algebra, 7 of them being more theoretically oriented, with the other 5 presenting strong applicative aspects in engineering, control theory, artificial intelligence, and graph theory. Hypercompositional algebra is now a well-established branch of abstract algebra dealing with structures endowed with multi-valued operations, also called hyperoperations, having a set as the result of the interrelation between two elements of the support set. The theoretical papers in this book are principally related to three main topics: (semi)hypergroups, hyperfields, and BCK-algebra. Heidari and Cristea present a natural generalization of breakable semigroups, defining the breakable semihypergroups where every non-empty subset is a subsemihypergroup. Using the fundamental relation ? on a hypergroup, some new properties of the

Fuzzy Sets, Fuzzy Logic and Their Applications

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ISBN: 9783039285204 9783039285211 Year: Pages: 366 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-521-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The present book contains 20 articles collected from amongst the 53 total submitted manuscripts for the Special Issue “Fuzzy Sets, Fuzzy Loigic and Their Applications” of the MDPI journal Mathematics. The articles, which appear in the book in the series in which they were accepted, published in Volumes 7 (2019) and 8 (2020) of the journal, cover a wide range of topics connected to the theory and applications of fuzzy systems and their extensions and generalizations. This range includes, among others, management of the uncertainty in a fuzzy environment; fuzzy assessment methods of human-machine performance; fuzzy graphs; fuzzy topological and convergence spaces; bipolar fuzzy relations; type-2 fuzzy; and intuitionistic, interval-valued, complex, picture, and Pythagorean fuzzy sets, soft sets and algebras, etc. The applications presented are oriented to finance, fuzzy analytic hierarchy, green supply chain industries, smart health practice, and hotel selection. This wide range of topics makes the book interesting for all those working in the wider area of Fuzzy sets and systems and of fuzzy logic and for those who have the proper mathematical background who wish to become familiar with recent advances in fuzzy mathematics, which has entered to almost all sectors of human life and activity.

Keywords

fuzzy analytic hierarchy process --- decision-making --- partial consensus --- posterior aggregation --- fuzzy topology --- fuzzy convergence --- lattice-valued convergence --- ?-convergence space --- relative topologicalness --- p-topologcalness --- diagonal condition --- neighborhood condition --- fuzzy sets (FSs) --- uncertainty --- center of gravity (COG) defuzzification technique --- triangular fuzzy numbers (TFNs) --- grey numbers (GNs) --- fuzzy relation equations (FRE) --- grade point average (GPA) index --- residuated lattice --- soft set --- filter --- t-filter --- t-int-soft filter --- BCK/BCI-algebra --- (?,?)-US set --- (?,?)-US subalgebra --- (?,?)-US (closed) ideal --- (?,?)-US commutative ideal --- fuzzy topology --- fuzzy convergence --- ?-convergence space --- regularity --- intuitionistic fuzzy set --- similarity --- counterintuitive --- fuzzy graph --- picture fuzzy graph --- social network --- direct product --- lexicographic product --- strong product --- Interval-valued complex fuzzy sets --- distance measures --- rotational invariance --- reflectional invariance --- dynamic multiple attribute decision making --- fuzzy regression --- interval type-2 fuzzy sets --- fuzzy topology --- fuzzy convergence --- ?-convergence --- diagonal condition --- L-cotopological space --- L-topological space --- degree of L-continuity --- degree of L-closedness --- degree of L-openness --- performance management --- green supply chain --- decision making --- nonlinear mathematical modeling --- FMCG industries --- fuzzy DEMATEL --- bipolar fuzzy relation --- bipolar fuzzy reflexive (resp., symmetric and transitive) relation --- bipolar fuzzy equivalence relation --- bipolar fuzzy partition --- (a, b)-level set --- fuzzy logic --- finance --- banking --- banking crisis management --- fuzzy number --- ?-limit set --- periodic point --- Zadeh’s extension --- smart health --- fuzzy collaborative intelligence --- fuzzy analytic hierarchy process --- suitability --- picture fuzzy numbers --- interaction operations --- partitioned Heronian --- aggregation operators --- hotel selection --- Pythagorean fuzzy set --- Dempster–Shafer evidence theory --- basic probability assignment --- medical diagnosis --- interval-valued fuzzy soft set --- interval-valued fuzzy soft topology --- interval-valued fuzzy soft point --- interval-valued fuzzy soft neighborhood --- interval-valued fuzzy soft quasi-neighborhood --- interval-valued fuzzy soft separation axioms

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