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Design and Engineering of Microreactor and Smart-Scaled Flow Processes

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ISBN: 9783038420385 9783038420392 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-039-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 07:00:06
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Microreactors are small devices with sub-millimeter internals which have superb mass and heat transfer. Initially, they were used for reactions with very high demands on the latter, e.g. very exothermic reactions, gas-liquid reactions with interfacial transport issues, reactions with very fast kinetics which demands even faster mixing, and more. In this way, the processing window was opened widely and, also due to the minute volumes only present in the reaction zone, safe processing under otherwise hazardous conditions was enabled. This includes processing of reactions which are prone to thermal runaway and in the explosive regime. Scale-up of promising reactions and products which was hindered with conventional technology is now possible using the new equipment. This has widened the process development possibilities in chemical industry.In the last years, micro process technology was not only used for the very problematic synthetic issues which formerly had a dead-end position in industry’s process development. Rather, the scope of chemical reactions to be processed in microreactors was considerably widened by exploring new process conditions with regard to temperature, pressure, concentration, solvents, and more. This is commonly referred to as flow chemistry. This allowed to reduce the processing time-scale for many reactions to the minute range or even below which fits well to the residence times of microreactors. In addition, the process integration of several reactions in one flow to a multi-step synthesis has opened a new door in molecular diversity as well as system and process complexity. The same holds for the combination of reactions and separations in micro-flow. To achieve throughputs relevant for industrial production, smart scale-out to milli-flow units has established and supplemented the num­bering-up concept (parallelization of microchannels/-reactors operated under equal conditions).New innovations and enabling technologies need anyhow evaluation and benchmarking with conventional technology on the full-system level. Yet, microreactor technology has in the last years deepened so much into process intensification on a holistic scale that the focus increasingly is given towards the process dimension—to process design and automation, real-case applications, cost analysis, life-cycle assessment, and more. The impact on cost competitiveness and sustainability becomes well assessed.Facing this very recent scientific achievement, the special issue “Design and Engineering of Microreactor and Smart-Scaled Flow Processes” of the journal Processes aims to cover recent advances in the development of microreactor and smart-scaled flow processes towards the process level — in the sense as given above.

Optics and Spectroscopy for Fluid Characterization

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ISBN: 9783038970217 9783038970224 Year: Pages: VIII, 120 Language: Englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-21 15:51:54
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All over the world, there is a huge and ever-increasing interest in the development and application of optical and spectroscopic techniques to characterize fluids in engineering and science. The large number of review articles that are frequently published in these areas is evidence of this. Recent examples have focused on applications of optical diagnostics to gas phase environments, liquids, and multiphase systems. A key feature of such light-based methods is that they are usually non-intrusive, and hence they do not notably affect the system under investigation. As a consequence, optical techniques have been developed for many decades and represent the gold standard in many fields. The list of individual techniques utilizing absorption, refraction, diffraction and scattering effects is long and so is the list of the parameters that can be determined. The latter includes macroscopic properties such as temperature, chemical composition, thermophysical quantities, and flow velocity, but molecular information, e.g., about isomerism and intermolecular interactions, can also be obtained. This Special Issue entitled “Optics and Spectroscopy for Fluid Characterization” aims to demonstrate the breadth of the field in terms of methodology, as well as applications.

Feature Papers

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ISBN: 9783038420705 9783038420712 Year: Pages: X, 392 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 09:20:18
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This special issue contains the first papers of Processes and is intended to highlight a diverse set of topics related to process technology for the chemical, materials, biochemical, pharmaceutical and biomedical industries. To enhance the impact of these industries on society, process innovation that allows large-scale manufacturing is essential for both established and emerging technologies. The scope of this special issue includes, but is not limited to: chemical and biochemical reaction processes: mixing, fluid processing and heat transfer systems; mass transfer, separation and purification processes; integrated process design and scale-up; and process modeling, simulation, optimization and control.

Advances in Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Production

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ISBN: 9783038426370 9783038426363 Year: Pages: X, 245 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-636-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-22 11:01:59
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Currently, we are witnessing highly dynamic research efforts related to the exciting field of novel biodegradable plastic-like materials. These activities originate from a growing public awareness of prevailing ecological problems associated to, e.g., rising piles of plastic waste, increasing greenhouse gas emissions, and ongoing depletion of such fossil resources usually used for the synthesis of “full carbon backbone” plastics. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolyesters, a family of versatile plastic-like materials produced by living microbes, are a future-oriented alternative to traditional plastics. If accomplished in an optimized way, production and the entire lifecycle of PHA are embedded into nature´s closed carbon cycle, which is underlined by PHA´s main benefits of being “biobased”, “biosynthesized”, “biocompatible”, and “biodegradable”.Sustainable and economically feasible PHA synthesis, especially on an industrially relevant scale, requires all production steps to be understood and improved. Among other aspects, this calls for new powerful production strains to be screened; knowledge about the proteome and genome of PHA accumulating organisms to be consolidated; the kinetics of the bioprocesses to be thoroughly understood; abundantly available inexpensive raw materials to be tested; the monomer composition of PHA to be adapted; (bio)chemical engineering to be optimized; and novel PHA recovery strategies to be developed in order to reduce energy and chemical inventory.The present book provides a comprehensive compilation of articles addressing all these different aspects; the individual chapters were composed by globally recognized front running experts from special niches of PHA research. We are convinced that this book will be of major benefit to the growing scientific community active in biopolymer research.

Model-Based Tools for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Processes

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ISBN: 9783039284245 9783039284252 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-425-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The Special Issue on “Model-Based Tools for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Processes” will curate novel advances in the development and application of model-based tools to address ever-present challenges of the traditional pharmaceutical manufacturing practice as well as new trends. This book provides a collection of nine papers on original advances in the model-based process unit, system-level, quality-by-design under uncertainty, and decision-making applications of pharmaceutical manufacturing processes.

Product/Process Fingerprint in Micro Manufacturing

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ISBN: 9783039210343 9783039210350 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-035-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The continuous miniaturization of products and the growing complexity of their embedded multifunctionalities necessitates continuous research and development efforts regarding micro components and related micro manufacturing technologies. Highly miniaturized systems, manufactured using a wide variety of materials, have found application in key technological fields, such as healthcare devices, micro implants, mobility, communications, optics, and micro electromechanical systems. Innovations required for the high-precision manufacturing of micro components can specifically be achieved through optimizations using post-process (i.e., offline) and in-process (i.e., online) metrology of both process input and output parameters, as well as geometrical features of the produced micro parts. However, it is of critical importance to reduce the metrology and optimization efforts, since process and product quality control can represent a significant portion of the total production time in micro manufacturing. To solve this fundamental challenge, research efforts have been undertaken in order to define, investigate, implement, and validate the so-called “product/process manufacturing fingerprint” concept. The “product manufacturing fingerprint” concept refers to those unique dimensional outcomes (e.g., surface topography, form error, critical dimensions, etc.) on the produced component that, if kept under control and within specifications, ensure that the entire micro component complies to its specifications. The “process manufacturing fingerprint” is a specific process parameter or feature to be monitored and controlled, in order to maintain the manufacture of products within the specified tolerances. By integrating both product and process manufacturing fingerprint concepts, the metrology and optimization efforts are highly reduced. Therefore, the quality of the micro products increases, with an obvious improvement in production yield. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on novel methodological developments and applications in micro- and sub-micro-scale manufacturing, process monitoring and control, as well as micro and sub-micro product quality assurance. Focus will be on micro manufacturing process chains and their micro product/process fingerprint, towards full process optimization and zero-defect micro manufacturing.

Keywords

micro-injection moulding --- quality assurance --- process monitoring --- micro metrology --- positioning platform --- Halbach linear motor --- commercial control hardware --- diffractive optics --- gratings --- microfabrication --- computer holography --- manufacturing signature --- process fingerprint --- Fresnel lenses --- injection compression molding --- injection molding --- micro structures replication --- confocal microscopy --- optical quality control --- uncertainty budget --- optimization --- precision injection molding --- quality control --- process monitoring --- product fingerprint --- process fingerprint --- electrical discharge machining --- electrical discharge machining (EDM) --- surface roughness --- surface integrity --- optimization --- desirability function --- satellite drop --- electrohydrodynamic jet printing --- charge relaxation time --- laser ablation --- superhydrophobic surface --- process fingerprint --- product fingerprint --- surface morphology --- artificial compound eye --- multi-spectral imaging --- lithography --- spectral splitting --- plasma-electrolytic polishing --- PeP --- surface modification --- finishing --- electro chemical machining --- ECM --- Electro sinter forging --- resistance sintering --- electrical current --- fingerprints --- electrical discharge machining --- micro drilling --- process monitoring --- quality control --- electrochemical machining (ECM) --- process control --- current monitoring --- current density --- surface roughness --- inline metrology --- haptic actuator --- impact analysis --- high strain rate effect --- damping --- 2-step analysis --- micro-grinding --- bioceramics --- materials characterisation --- dental implant --- microinjection moulding --- process fingerprints --- flow length --- quality assurance --- n/a

Modeling and Simulation of Energy Systems

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ISBN: 9783039215188 9783039215195 Year: Pages: 496 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-519-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Energy Systems Engineering is one of the most exciting and fastest growing fields in engineering. Modeling and simulation plays a key role in Energy Systems Engineering because it is the primary basis on which energy system design, control, optimization, and analysis are based. This book contains a specially curated collection of recent research articles on the modeling and simulation of energy systems written by top experts around the world from universities and research labs, such as Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Yale University, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US Department of Energy, University of Technology Sydney, McMaster University, Queens University, Purdue University, the University of Connecticut, Technical University of Denmark, the University of Toronto, Technische Universität Berlin, Texas A&M, the University of Pennsylvania, and many more. The key research themes covered include energy systems design, control systems, flexible operations, operational strategies, and systems analysis. The addressed areas of application include electric power generation, refrigeration cycles, natural gas liquefaction, shale gas treatment, concentrated solar power, waste-to-energy systems, micro-gas turbines, carbon dioxide capture systems, energy storage, petroleum refinery unit operations, Brayton cycles, to name but a few.

Keywords

cogeneration --- process integration --- solar energy --- thermal storage --- desalination --- optimization --- naphtha recovery unit --- statistical model --- simulation --- optimization --- concentrating solar thermal --- CST --- concentrating solar power --- CSP --- parabolic trough --- PTC --- thermal storage --- industrial process heat --- hybrid solar --- power plants --- supervisory control --- dynamic simulation --- dynamic optimization --- optimal control --- post-combustion CO2 capture --- energy efficiency --- time-varying operation --- shale gas condensate --- process synthesis and design --- shale gas condensate-to-heavier liquids --- technoeconomic analysis --- supercritical carbon dioxide --- recompression cycle --- combined cycle --- efficiency --- organic Rankine cycle --- exergy loss --- second law efficiency --- auto thermal reformer --- palladium membrane hydrogen separation --- polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) --- multi-loop control --- nonsmooth modeling --- process simulation --- DMR liquefaction processes --- fuel cost minimization problem --- FCMP --- piecewise-linear function generation --- linearization --- natural gas transportation --- compressor modeling --- compressibility factor --- isentropic exponent --- friction factor --- demand response --- energy management --- energy storage --- optimal battery operation --- battery degradation --- micro gas turbine --- modelling --- diagnostics, gas path analysis, analysis by synthesis --- circulating fluidized bed boiler --- refuse derived fuel --- waste to energy --- dynamic modeling --- process control --- dynamic modeling --- process control --- load-following --- supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC) --- cycling --- time-delay --- smith predictor --- energy systems --- modeling and simulation --- multi-scale systems engineering --- sustainable process design --- energy economics --- top-down models --- hybrid Life Cycle Assessment --- oil and gas --- offshore wind --- combined cycle --- hybrid system --- kriging --- multi-objective optimisation --- solar PV --- wind power --- life cycle analysis --- energy storage --- multiphase equilibrium --- RK-ASPEN --- methyl-oleate --- biodiesel --- supercritical CO2 --- WHENS --- work and heat integration --- building blocks --- superstructure --- MINLP --- absorption refrigeration --- H2O-LiBr working pair --- double-effect system --- cost optimization --- nonlinear mathematical programming --- Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) --- geothermal energy --- binary cycle --- R245fa --- R123 --- mixture ratio --- Dieng --- Indonesia --- modeling --- simulation --- energy --- energy systems --- process systems engineering --- optimization --- process design --- operations

Smart Sustainable Manufacturing Systems

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ISBN: 9783039212019 9783039212026 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-202-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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With the advent of disruptive digital technologies, companies are facing unprecedented challenges and opportunities. Advanced manufacturing systems are of paramount importance in making key enabling technologies and new products more competitive, affordable, and accessible, as well as for fostering their economic and social impact. The manufacturing industry also serves as an innovator for sustainability since automation coupled with advanced manufacturing technologies have helped manufacturing practices transition into the circular economy. To that end, this Special Issue of the journal Applied Sciences, devoted to the broad field of Smart Sustainable Manufacturing Systems, explores recent research into the concepts, methods, tools, and applications for smart sustainable manufacturing, in order to advance and promote the development of modern and intelligent manufacturing systems. In light of the above, this Special Issue is a collection of the latest research on relevant topics and addresses the current challenging issues associated with the introduction of smart sustainable manufacturing systems. Various topics have been addressed in this Special Issue, which focuses on the design of sustainable production systems and factories; industrial big data analytics and cyberphysical systems; intelligent maintenance approaches and technologies for increased operating life of production systems; zero-defect manufacturing strategies, tools and methods towards online production management; and connected smart factories.

Flexible and Stretchable Electronics

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ISBN: 9783038424369 9783038424376 Year: Pages: VIII, 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-437-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-27 09:51:34
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Flexible and stretchable electronics are receiving tremendous attention as future electronics due to their flexibility and light weight, especially as applications in wearable electronics. Flexible electronics are usually fabricated on heat sensitive flexible substrates such as plastic, fabric or even paper, while stretchable electronics are usually fabricated from an elastomeric substrate to survive large deformation in their practical application. Therefore, successful fabrication of flexible electronics needs low temperature processable novel materials and a particular processing development because traditional materials and processes are not compatible with flexible/stretchable electronics. Huge technical challenges and opportunities surround these dramatic changes from the perspective of new material design and processing, new fabrication techniques, large deformation mechanics, new application development and so on. Here, we invited talented researchers to join us in this new vital field that holds the potential to reshape our future life, by contributing their words of wisdom from their particular perspective.

Information Geometry

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ISBN: 9783038976325 Year: Pages: 356 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-633-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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This Special Issue of the journal Entropy, titled “Information Geometry I”, contains a collection of 17 papers concerning the foundations and applications of information geometry. Based on a geometrical interpretation of probability, information geometry has become a rich mathematical field employing the methods of differential geometry. It has numerous applications to data science, physics, and neuroscience. Presenting original research, yet written in an accessible, tutorial style, this collection of papers will be useful for scientists who are new to the field, while providing an excellent reference for the more experienced researcher. Several papers are written by authorities in the field, and topics cover the foundations of information geometry, as well as applications to statistics, Bayesian inference, machine learning, complex systems, physics, and neuroscience.

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