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Advances in Computer Simulation Studies on Crystal Growth

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ISBN: 9783038973560 9783038973577 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-357-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 11:51:21
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Crystals are indispensable in technology, nature, and our daily lives. For example, cooking uses many kinds of crystallized products, such as salt, sugar, and fat crystals; electronic devices contain semiconductor crystals; living organisms produce mineral crystals to maintain biological processes; and snow and ice crystals play a crucial role in climate change. For these and other topics related to crystals, an especially important area of research is crystal growth. Computer simulations of crystal growth have become increasingly important as a result of rapid increases in available computing power. Computer simulations can analyze and predict various aspects of crystal growth, including molecular-scale growth and nucleation mechanisms, the structure and dynamics of surfaces and interfaces, and pattern formation. This book presents state-of-the-art research and reviews of computer simulation studies on crystal growth for hard-sphere particles, organic molecules, ice, and functional materials. The studies use a variety of simulation methodologies, including molecular simulations, first-principles simulations, continuum simulations, and multiscale simulations. This book will interest graduate students and researchers in crystal growth science and technology and will provide a helpful reference for scientists who want to familiarize themselves with computer simulations of crystal growth.

Progress in Mathematical Ecology

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ISBN: 9783038973126 9783038973133 Year: Pages: 214 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-313-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Ecology --- Physics (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-07 09:41:32
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Mathematical ecology is an area of applied mathematics concerned with the application of mathematical concepts, tools and techniques, usually in the form of mathematical models, to problems arising in population dynamics, ecology and evolution. This Special Issue is designed to provide a snapshot of the state of the art in mathematical ecology. Topics of interest are (in no particular order) biological invasions, biological control, ecological pattern formation, ecologically relevant multiscale models, food webs, individual movement and dispersal, eco-epidemiology, evolutionary ecology, agroecosystems, regime shifts and early warning signals, synchronization and chaos. The list is inclusive rather than exclusive, and a few other relevant topics will also be considered.

Kinetic Theory and Swarming Tools to Modeling Complex Systems—Symmetry problems in the Science of Living Systems

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ISBN: 9783039288793 / 9783039288809 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-880-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This MPDI book comprises a number of selected contributions to a Special Issue devoted to the modeling and simulation of living systems based on developments in kinetic mathematical tools. The focus is on a fascinating research field which cannot be tackled by the approach of the so-called hard sciences—specifically mathematics—without the invention of new methods in view of a new mathematical theory. The contents proposed by eight contributions witness the growing interest of scientists this field. The first contribution is an editorial paper which presents the motivations for studying the mathematics and physics of living systems within the framework an interdisciplinary approach, where mathematics and physics interact with specific fields of the class of systems object of modeling and simulations. The different contributions refer to economy, collective learning, cell motion, vehicular traffic, crowd dynamics, and social swarms. The key problem towards modeling consists in capturing the complexity features of living systems. All articles refer to large systems of interaction living entities and follow, towards modeling, a common rationale which consists firstly in representing the system by a probability distribution over the microscopic state of the said entities, secondly, in deriving a general mathematical structure deemed to provide the conceptual basis for the derivation of models and, finally, in implementing the said structure by models of interactions at the microscopic scale. Therefore, the modeling approach transfers the dynamics at the low scale to collective behaviors. Interactions are modeled by theoretical tools of stochastic game theory. Overall, the interested reader will find, in the contents, a forward look comprising various research perspectives and issues, followed by hints on to tackle these.

Solution Models based on Symmetric and Asymmetric Information

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ISBN: 9783039210060 9783039210077 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-007-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This Special Issue covers symmetry and asymmetry phenomena occurring in real-life problems. We invited authors to submit their theoretical or experimental research presenting engineering and economic problem solution models dealing with the symmetry or asymmetry of different types of information. The issue gained interest in the research community and received many submissions. After rigorous scientific evaluation by editors and reviewers, nine papers were accepted and published. The authors proposed different MADM and MODM solution models as integrated tools to find a balance between the components of sustainable global development, to find a symmetry axis concerning goals, risks, and constraints to cope with the complicated problems. Most approaches suggested decision models under uncertainty, combining the usual decision-making methods with interval-valued fuzzy or rough sets theory, also Z numbers. The application fields of the proposed models involved both problems of technological sciences and social sciences. The papers cover three essential areas: engineering, economy, and management. We hope that a summary of the Special Issue as provided here will encourage a detailed analysis of the papers included in the Printed Edition.

Keywords

multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) --- group decision-making --- interval type-2 fuzzy set (IT2FS) --- subjective weights --- criteria weights --- Step-wise Weight Assessment Ratio Analysis (SWARA) --- multiple attribute decision making (MADM) --- neutrosophic numbers --- 2-tuple linguistic neutrosophic numbers set (2TLNNSs) --- Bonferroni mean (BM) operator --- generalized Bonferroni mean (GBM) operator --- dual generalized Bonferroni mean (DGBM) operator --- dual generalized geometric Bonferroni mean (DGGBM) operator --- green supplier selection --- green supply chain management --- Pythagorean fuzzy set --- normal cloud --- MCGDM --- backward cloud transformation --- MCDM --- the criteria of the weights --- Bayes’ theorem --- combining the weights --- symmetry of the method --- IDOCRIW --- FAHP --- evaluating the quality of distant courses --- optimal dividend --- capital injection --- salvage value --- transaction cost --- excess-of-loss reinsurance --- thrust --- data logger --- sensor --- quadcopter --- measurement --- control system --- stability --- data envelopment analysis --- Z-numbers --- full fuzzy environment --- fuzzy efficiency --- rough ARAS --- transport --- performance --- logistics --- MCDM --- probabilistic systems analysis --- nonlinear dynamics --- public management --- pattern formation --- resources distribution --- population sizes --- information theory --- oscillations --- hybrid problem solution models --- multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) --- hybrid MCDM --- criteria weight assessment --- fuzzy sets --- rough sets --- Z-numbers --- neutrosophic numbers --- Bonferroni mean (BM) operator --- engineering problems --- economic decisions

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