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Marine Oil Spills

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ISBN: 9783038425045 9783038425052 Year: Pages: VIII, 168 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-02 11:45:44
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Major oil spills attract the attention of the public and the media. This was especially the case after the Deepwater Horizon spill. In recent years, this attention has created a global awareness of the risks of oil spills and the damage they do to the environment. Oil is a necessity in our industrial society, however, and a major component of our lifestyle. This means that the risk of major spills continues as does the interest in spills.The Deepwater Horizon spill began a new series of scientific studies that have greatly increased our understanding of oil spills. This book contains 10 such studies. These studies vary from toxicity studies to social studies of human reaction to spills and risk. Importantly, the book is a sampling of important new topics that have become important after the Deepwater Horizon spill. These new topics include new chemical and tracing techniques, new risk perception techniques, perspectives on human health and spills, and discussion on new fuels. This book makes a significant contribution to the understanding of facets of spills and explores 10 very different facets of oil spills.

Recent Advances in Omega-3: Health Benefits, Sources, Products and Bioavailability

ISBN: 9783906980751 9783906980768 Year: Pages: 216 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-01-12 11:54:33
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The joint symposium of The Omega-3 Centre and the Australasian Section American Oil Chemists Society; Recent Advances in Omega-3: Health Benefits, Sources, Products and Bioavailability, was held November 7, 2013 in Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Over 115 attendees received new information on a range of health benefits, aquaculture as a sustainable source of supply, and current and potential new and novel sources of these essential omega-3 long-chain (LC, ≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid nutrients (also termed LC omega-3). The theme of “Food versus Fuel” was an inspired way to present a vast array of emerging and ground breaking Omega-3 research that has application across many disciplines. Eleven papers submitted following from the Omega-3 Symposium are published in this Special Issue volume, with topics covered including: an update on the use of the Omega-3 Index (O3I), the effects of dosage and concurrent intake of vitamins/minerals on omega-3 incorporation into red blood cells, the possible use of the O3I as a measure of risk for adiposity, the need for and progress with new land plant sources of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω3), the current status of farmed Australian and New Zealand fish, and also supplements, in terms of their LC omega-3 and persistent organic pollutants (POP) content, progress with cheap carbon sources in the culture of DHA-producing single cell organisms, a detailed examination of the lipids of the New Zealand Greenshell mussel, and a pilot investigation of the purification of New Zealand hoki liver oil by short path distillation. The selection of papers in this Special Issue collectively highlights a range of forward looking and also new and including positive scientific outcomes occurring in the omega-3 field. [...]

Marine Oil Spills 2018

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ISBN: 9783038978541 9783038978558 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-855-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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The mitigation of oil spills is an important facet of environmental protection. Understanding oil spills is a first step toward preventing and minimizing their damage to the environment. This compilation presents several of the current studies related to such an understanding of oil spills and the environment.This book is a compilation of 14 papers presenting new developments in the field of oil spills, giving insight into the rapidly changing world of oil spill studies and technology. The 14 papers included cover topics varying from risk analysis to oil spill remote sensing. Broadly categorized, included are six papers on modeling, four papers on remote sensing, three papers on risk assessment, and one paper on oil spill countermeasures. Each paper presents a unique insight into a facet of oil spill research and technology. The authors of these papers represent many different countries and affiliations around the world.

Keywords

RANS --- non-breaking ocean waves --- random walk method --- Lagrangian particle dispersion --- oil spill model --- oil spill --- impact modeling --- simulation --- contingency planning --- oil spill model --- ocean trajectory --- GNOME --- BLOSOM --- Salish Sea --- Point Wells --- Foss Barge --- hindcast --- windage --- model comparison --- oil spill model --- FVCOM --- OSCAR --- M/V Marathassa oil spill --- the English Bay --- Vancouver Harbour --- oil spill response --- sea-coastal zones --- methods of vulnerability mapping to oil --- the problems of vulnerability maps development --- ordinal values --- arithmetic operations with rank values --- marine pollution --- oil spill pollution --- oil spill accidents --- oil spill mitigation plans --- coastal protection --- statistical analysis --- PROMETHEE methodology --- Access Western Blend (condensate/bitumen-dilbit) --- Western Canadian Select (condensate mixed with synthetic crude/bitumen-dilsynbit) --- Synthetic Bitumen (synthetic crude/bitumen-Synbit) --- Heidrun --- dispersant --- wave tank --- dispersion effectiveness (DE) --- oil-slick discrimination algorithm --- petrogenic oil-slick category --- naturally-occurring oil seeps --- man-made oil spills --- exploratory data analysis --- remote sensing --- synthetic aperture radar --- RADARSAT --- Gulf of Mexico --- Campeche Bay --- oil spill --- Italian seas --- numerical forecasting tool --- emergency management --- oil spill --- remote sensing --- reflection coefficient --- electromagnetic roughness --- multi-frequency detector --- multiple observations --- probability density function --- probability of detection --- contingency planning --- marine information systems --- environmental monitoring --- proactive systems --- decision support systems --- signal integration --- oil spills --- oil slicks characterization --- oil thickness --- polarized SAR data --- polarimetric SAR data (PolSAR) --- statistical region-based classification --- uncertainty maps --- UAVSAR --- trajectory model --- oil spill model --- oil spill response --- oil spill risk analysis --- Gulf of Mexico --- Outer Continental Shelf --- environmental resources --- risk modelling --- Princeton Ocean Model --- trajectory analysis --- oil spill --- numerical simulation --- LES --- low atmosphere --- coastal flow --- contingency plan --- Kotor bay --- n/a

Colloids and Interfaces in Oil Recovery

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ISBN: 9783039211067 9783039211074 Year: Pages: 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-107-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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It is well-known that colloid and interface science and petroleum production are inextricably linked. Whether in the reservoir, with its porous structure, or during recovery, crude oil is intimately associated with rock surfaces and with water, often in the form of emulsions. This situation leads to highly complex systems, comprising multiple colloids and interfaces, which require to be optimized if oil is to be recovered efficiently, both in terms of economic cost and with due concern for the environment. This book contains a compilation of contemporary research topics which illustrate various aspects of the importance of colloids and interfaces in crude oil recovery through modifying conditions between the rock, crude oil, and water in the reservoir, in order to achieve improved oil recovery. The specific topics covered relate both to conventional oils, in which waterflooding is the most common secondary and tertiary means of recovery, and to non-conventional heavy oil and natural bitumen, which require thermal recovery methods, owing to their high viscosity.

Food Packaging. Materials and Technologies

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ISBN: 9783038977667 9783038977674 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-767-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Because of the increasing pressure on both food safety and packaging/food waste, the topic is important both for academics, applied research, industry and also for environment protection. Different materials, such as glass, metals, paper and paperboards, and non-degradable and degradable polymers, with versatile properties, are attractive for potential uses in food packaging. Food packaging is the largest area of application within the food sector. Only the nanotechnology-enabled products in the food sector account for ~50% of the market value, with and the annual growth rate is 11.65%. Technological developments are also of great interest. In the food sector, nanotechnology is involved in packaging materials with extremely high gas barriers, antimicrobial properties, and also in nanoencapsulants for the delivery of nutrients, flavors, or aromas, antimicrobial, and antioxidant compounds. Applications of materials, including nanomaterials in packaging and food safety, are in forms of: edible films, polymer nanocomposites, as high barrier packaging materials, nanocoatings, surface biocides, silver nanoparticles as potent antimicrobial agents, nutrition and neutraceuticals, active/bioactive packaging, intelligent packaging, nanosensors and nanomaterial-based assays for the detection of food relevant analytes (gasses, small organic molecules and food-borne pathogens) and bioplastics.

Power Transformer Diagnostics, Monitoring and Design Features

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ISBN: 9783038974413 9783038974420 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-442-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Electrical and Nuclear Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-09 11:54:22
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Power transformers are key components in electric power distribution and transmission systems, and it is essential that they function properly for many years. With increasing age, there are potential risks of extremely high monetary losses due to unexpected failures and outages. A simple solution would be to replace all aging and risky transformers at once with new ones. Such an approach is obviously not a fiscally realistic solution. The main objectives are to extend their service life and optimize their performance through increased availability. For these reasons, in the past decades transformer life management has gained an ever-increasing interest. The greatest challenges are related to the need for methods to assess their condition and life expectancy along with the improvement of transformers’ efficiency by noble designs and/or the application of new materials. This book covers some theoretical and practical developments with special emphasis on R&D trends in transformer diagnostics and monitoring. Graduate-level students and academics as well as scientists and engineers involved in power equipment design, diagnostics, and monitoring will benefit from this book.

Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources

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ISBN: 9783039288755 / 9783039288762 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-876-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This multidisciplinary book covers a wide range of topics addressing critical challenges for advancing the understanding and management of shale oil and shale gas resources. Both fundamental and practical issues are considered. By covering a variety of technical topics, we aim to contribute to building a more integrated perspective to meet major challenges faced by shale resources. Combining complementary techniques and examining multiple sources of data serve to advance our current knowledge about these unconventional reservoirs. The book is a result of interdisciplinary and collaborative work. The content includes contributions authored by active scientists with ample expertise in their fields. Each article was carefully peer-reviewed by researchers, and the editorial process was performed by an experienced team of Senior Editors, Guest Editors, Topic Editors, and Editorial Board Members. The first part is devoted to fundamental topics, mostly investigated on the laboratory scale. The second part elaborates on larger scales (at near-wellbore and field scales). Finally, two related technologies, which could be relevant for shale plays applications, are presented. With this Special Issue, we provide a channel for sharing information and lessons learned collected from different plays and from different disciplines.

Catalytic Processes for The Valorisation of Biomass Derived Molecules

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039219148 9783039219155 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-915-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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In the last decades, inedible lignocellulosic biomasses have attracted significant attention for being abundant resources that are not in competition with agricultural land or food production and, therefore, can be used as starting renewable material for the production of a wide variety of platform chemicals. The three main components of lignocellulosic biomasses are cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, complex biopolymers that can be converted into a pool of platform molecules including sugars, polyols, alchols, ketons, ethers, acids and aromatics. Various technologies have been explored for their one-pot conversion into chemicals, fuels and materials. However, in order to develop new catalytic processes for the selective production of desired products, a complete understanding of the molecular aspects of the basic chemistry and reactivity of biomass derived molecules is still crucial. This Special Issue reports on recent progress and advances in the catalytic valorization of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin model molecules promoted by novel heterogeneous systems for the production of energy, fuels and chemicals.

Analytical Technology in Nutrition Analysis

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ISBN: 9783039287642 / 9783039287659 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-765-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Due to increasing global food needs as a result of population growth, the use of new food sources has gained interest in the last decade. However, the inclusion of new foods in our diet, as well as the increased interest of the population in consuming foods with better nutritional properties, has increased the need for adequate food analytical methods. This monographic issue presents innovative methods of chemical analysis of foods, as well as the nutritional and chemical characterization of foods whose consumption is expected to increase worldwide in the coming years.

Lamiaceae Species: Biology, Ecology and Practical Uses

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ISBN: 9783039284184 9783039284191 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-419-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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This Special Issue Book entitled ""Lamiaceae Species: Biology, Ecology and Practical Uses"" contributes to the knowledge of selected Lamiaceae species from several perspectives, such as diversity and phytogeography, taxonomy, ethnobotany, and quantitative and qualitative composition, as well as the biological activity of secondary metabolites.

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