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Agent-Based Modelling and Landscape Change

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ISBN: 9783038422808 9783038422815 Year: Pages: XII, 314 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-281-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2016-10-13 14:09:44
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The use of agent-based models (ABMs) and modelling for understanding landscape change and dynamics continues to grow. One reason for the popularity of ABMs is that they provide a framework to represent multiple, discrete, multi-faceted, heterogeneous actors (human or otherwise) and their relationships and interactions between one another and their environment, through time and across space. This collection showcases innovative uses of ABMs for investigating and explaining landscape change and dynamics and to explore and identify how researchers in different disciplines can learn from one another to further innovate. The diverse range of processes and landscapes that ABMs are currently used to examine is clearly demonstrated, including: land-use decision making in agricultural landscapes; soil erosion in semi-arid environments; forest change in mountainous landscapes; trade in 1st Century BC southern France; social adaptations of herders in northern Mongolia; and malaria epidemiology in Kenya. A range of agent-based representation is used from the implied presence of agents, through comparing heterogeneous vs. aggregated representation of human activity, to alternative means of parameterizing individual agent behaviour. The collection will be of interest to all interested in innovative agent-based modelling for understanding landscape change, its causes and consequences for sustainability in the Anthropocene.

Low Back Pain: Recent Advances and Perspectives

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ISBN: 9783038426578 9783038426561 Year: Pages: 218 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-12 11:29:42
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This text will provide the most recent knowledge and advances in the area of chronic low back pain. The articles will range from topics such as the growing epidemic of chronic low back pain, to intervention for it, as well as specific biopsychosocial characteristics that can be used in its assessment, treatment, and outcomes monitoring.

Evaluation of Systems’ Irregularity and Complexity: Sample Entropy, Its Derivatives, and Their Applications across Scales and Disciplines

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ISBN: 9783038973324 9783038973331 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-333-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-10 11:20:37
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.[enter Summary/Description]Based on information theory, a number of entropy measures have been proposed since the 1990s to assess systems’ irregularity, such as approximate entropy, sample entropy, permutation entropy, intrinsic mode entropy, and dispersion entropy, to cite only a few. Among them, sample entropy has been used in a very large variety of disciplines for both univariate and multivariate data. However, improvements to the sample entropy algorithm are still being proposed because sample entropy is unstable for short time series, may be sensitive to parameter values, and can be too time-consuming for long data. At the same time, it is worth noting that sample entropy does not take into account the multiple temporal scales inherent in complex systems. It is maximized for completely random processes and is used only to quantify the irregularity of signals on a single scale. This is why analyses of irregularity—with sample entropy or its derivatives—at multiple time scales have been proposed to assess systems’ complexity. This Book presents contributions related to new and original research based on the use of sample entropy or its derivatives.

Social Ecology State of the Art and Future Prospects

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ISBN: 9783038425465 9783038425472 Year: Pages: VII, 192 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-27 08:57:59
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The book ‘Social Ecology. State of the Art and Future Prospects’ is published by ISOE – Institute for Social-Ecological Research, Frankfurt am Main and the Vienna Institute of Social Ecology (SEC). Both institutes have made defining contributions to the field of social ecology. How the complex relations between society and nature can be theoretically captured, empirically investigated and sustainably shaped is a focal question for both institutes. This book provides an overview of the current state of social-ecological research. It contains 11 contributions from 29 scientists, edited by Johanna Kramm and Martin Zimmermann (ISOE) and Melanie Pichler and Anke Schaffartzik (SEC). Topics range from the conceptional and theoretical foundations of social ecology to empirical case studies and research frontiers. The peer-reviewed essays highlight the role of social ecology as a critical, transdisciplinary science, discussing the current challenges for social-ecological transformations. Key concepts for sustainability research like ecosystem services, societal metabolism, risk, or extractive economies are applied and advanced.

Volcanic Plumes.Impacts on the Atmosphere and Insights into Volcanic Processes

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ISBN: 9783038976288 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-629-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Volcanoes release plumes of gas and ash to the atmosphere during episodes of passive and explosive behavior. These ejecta have important implications for the chemistry and composition of the troposphere and stratosphere, with the capacity to alter Earth's radiation budget and climate system over a range of temporal and spatial scales. Volcanogenic sulphur dioxide reacts to form sulphate aerosols, which increase global albedo, e.g., by reducing surface temperatures, in addition to perturbing the formation processes and optical properties of clouds. Released halogen species can also deplete stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. Volcanic degassing, furthermore, played a key role in the formation of Earth’s atmosphere, and volcanic plumes can affect air quality, pose hazards to aviation and human health, as well as damage ecosystems. The chemical compositions and emission rates of volcanic plumes are also monitored via a range of direct-sampling and remote-sensing instrumentation, in order to gain insights into subterranean processes, in the respect of the magmatic bodies these volatiles exsolve from. Given the significant role these gases play in driving volcanic activity, e.g., via pressurisation, the study of volcanic plumes is proving to be an increasingly fruitful means of improving our understanding of volcanic systems, potentially in concert with observations from geophysics and contributions from fluid dynamical modelling of conduit dynamics.

Sustainable Interdisciplinarity: Human-Nature Relations

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ISBN: 9783039281169 9783039281176 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-117-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Sustainable interdisciplinarity focuses on human–nature relations and a multitude of contemporary overlapping research between society and the environment. A variety of disciplines have played a large part in better understanding sustainable development since its high-profile emergence approximately a quarter of a century ago. At present, the forefront of sustainability research is an array of methods, techniques, and growing knowledge base that considers past, present, and future pathways. Specific multidisciplinary concentrations within the scope of societal changes, urban landscape transformations, international environmental comparative studies, as well as key theories and dynamics relating to sustainable performance are explored. Specializations in complex sustainability issues address international governance arrangements, rules, and organizations—both public and private—within the scope of four themes: sustainability, human geography, environment, and interdisciplinary societal studies. This book contains eleven thoroughly refereed contributions concerning pressing issues that interlink sustainable interdisciplinarity with the presented themes in terms of the human–nature interface.

Towards Sustainable Global Food Systems. Conceptual and Policy Analysis of Agriculture, Food and Environment Linkages

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ISBN: 9783038978145 9783038978152 Year: Pages: 356 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-815-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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One of the major knowledge challenges in the domain of Resilient and Sustainable Food Systems refers to the integration of perspectives on consumption, patterns that support public health, inclusive value chains, and environmentally sustainable food production. While there is a long record of the analysis of separate interventions, this special issue generates integrated insights, provides cross-cutting perspectives, and outlines practical and policy solutions that address these global challenges.The collection of papers promotes the view that sustainable food systems require thorough insights into the structure and dynamics of agri-food production systems, the drivers for integrating food value chains and markets, and key incentives for supporting healthier consumer choices. On the production side, potential linkages between agricultural commercialization and intensification and their effects for food security and nutritional outcomes are analyzed. Value Chains are assessed for their contribution to improving exchange networks and markets for food products that simultaneously support efficiency, circularity, and responsiveness. Individual motives and market structures for food consumption need to be understood in order to be able to outline suitable incentives to enhance healthy dietary choice.The contributed papers focus on interfaces between food system activities and processes of adaptive change that are critical for overcoming key constraints and trade-offs between sustainable food and healthy diets.

Keywords

agricultural impacts --- climate change impacts --- integrated assessment model --- CGE model --- Ostrea edulis --- native oyster restoration --- North Sea --- site selection --- pilot study --- offshore wind farms --- sustainability --- food systems --- nutrition --- public-private cooperation --- corporate values --- sanitary control --- food safety --- prosperity --- sustainable development --- alternative agri-food networks --- transition theories --- grassroots innovations --- socio-technical systems --- agroecology --- ecovillages --- social movements --- certification --- organic agriculture --- Participatory Guarantee Systems --- Spain --- alternative certification systems --- food systems --- metrics --- interdisciplinarity --- sustainable food and nutrition security --- food system assessment --- participatory approach --- SUSFANS --- agribusiness cluster --- commercialization --- sustainable intensification --- dairy value chain --- farming system --- service arrangements --- Ethiopia --- Kenya --- sustainable diets --- diet adoption --- sustainable food system --- intention-behavior gap --- citizen participation --- innovation workshop --- Agricultural commercialization --- food and nutrition security --- salutogenesis --- life course perspective --- food systems --- multi-level --- positive deviance --- Myanmar --- social innovation --- agricultural commercialization --- nutrition sensitive transformation --- Myanmar --- vegetable consumption --- food choice motives --- knowledge --- self-efficacy --- socio-economic classes --- food environment --- Nigeria --- sustainable development goals --- sustainability assessment --- agricultural sustainability --- food security --- LCA broadening --- LCA deepening --- food systems --- interdisciplinary research --- feedbacks &amp --- interlinkages --- food policy --- 3I Approach --- value chain development --- participatory approach --- context-specific interventions --- behavioural change --- postharvest losses --- tomato --- Nigeria --- supply chain --- raffia basket --- plastic crate --- systems approach --- conceptual framework --- food loss practices --- food loss causes --- food loss solutions --- supply-chain stages --- literature --- socio-economic indicators --- tomato --- Nigeria --- adoption --- conservation agriculture --- social capital --- count outcome models --- pca --- marginal treatment effects --- Nigeria --- food security --- CGE model --- nutrition --- diet diversity --- land substitution --- agricultural intensification --- baseline projections --- commercialization --- Vietnam --- food system --- fertilizer use --- caloric intake --- dietary diversity Vietnam Living Standards Survey (VLSS)

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