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Integration of 2D Materials for Electronics Applications

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ISBN: 9783038976066 / 9783038976073 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-607-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Chemical Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-13 10:07:39
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Two-dimensional (2D) materials and their vertical/lateral heterostructures are currently the subject of massive research interests, both for fundamental science and for technological applications in diverse fields, such as electronics, optoelectronics, quantum metrology, spintronics, membranes, energy conversion/storage, and sensing. Integration of 2D materials within real device structures currently represents the main challenge to move from the laboratory stage to industrial applications, especially in the fields of electronics/optoelectronics.This Book is a collection of 9 papers, covering the different key topics of this rapidly developing research field. These include: synthesis of 2D materials, progress in relevant processing issues (contact, doping and mobility engineering), advanced characterization techniques, novel device applications based on the integration of these 2D materials.Many of the papers of this collection are review papers, providing the general introductory information and a broad overview of the most recent advances in the specific topic. Hence, this book can serve both as a general introduction for non-experts in the field and as a guide for scientists/engineers working in the field of 2D materials integration.

Recent Progress in Understanding the Mechanism and Consequences of Retrotransposon Movement

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ISBN: 9783038425403 9783038425410 Year: Pages: VIII, 194 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-27 09:08:55
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Retrotransposons are present in essentially all eukaryotic genomes and come in two basic flavors: those that are bracketed by long terminal repeats (LTRs) and share a common ancestor with retroviruses, and non-LTR retrotransposons that have a distinct lineage and remain transpositionally active in humans. Both types of retrotransposons replicate through an RNA intermediate, stably integrate into the host genome and have accumulated to a very high copy number in mammals and certain plant species. Autonomous elements produce transcripts capable of undergoing reverse transcription, and minimally encode proteins with reverse transcriptase, integrase/endonucleolytic, and nucleic acid chaperone activities. Retrotransposons are currently distinguished from viruses, since the process of retrotransposition is not infectious. However, this boundary may prove to be provisional as we learn more about these mobile genetic elements. The goal of this Special Issue of Viruses is to highlight progress in understanding the mechanism and consequences of retrotransposon movement. Several active research areas may be covered in reviews and research articles, including the roles of cellular modulators and defense systems, retrotransposon expression and replication, retrotransposon-induced mutations and their association with human diseases, and how these widely disseminated elements mold eukaryotic genomes.

Wind Turbines

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ISBN: 9783038973607 / 9783038973614 Year: Pages: 328 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-361-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Electrical and Nuclear Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-11 09:36:07
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This issue is a continuation of the previous successful Special Issue “Wind Turbines 2013”. Similarly, this issue also focuses on recent advances in the wind energy sector on a wide range of topics, including: wind resource mapping, wind intermittency issues, aerodynamics, foundations, aeroelasticity, wind turbine technologies, control of wind turbines, diagnostics, generator concepts including gearless concepts, power electronic converters, grid interconnection, ride-through operation, protection, wind farm layouts - optimization and control, reliability, operations and maintenance, effects of wind farms on local and global climate, wind power stations, smart-grid and micro-grid related to wind turbine operation.

Sustainable Drainage Systems

ISBN: 9783038420927 9783038420910 Year: Pages: XII, 236 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-07-12 11:05:05
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Recent Developments in Cointegration

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ISBN: 9783038429555 9783038429562 Year: Pages: VIII, 210 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-05 13:20:18
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The Cointegrated VAR model allows the user to study both long-run and short-run effects in the same model. It describes an economic system where variables have been pushed away from long-run equilibria by exogenous shocks (the pushing forces) and where short-run adjustments forces pull them back toward long-run equilibria (the pulling forces). In this model framework, basic assumptions underlying an economic theory model can be translated into testable hypotheses of the order of integration and cointegration of key variables and their relationships. While the latter used to be I(1), macroeconomic and financial data have recently shown a tendency for puzzling long and persistent swings around long-run equilibrium values typical of self-reinforcing feed-back mechanisms. Such persistent fluctuations are frequently indistinguishable from I(2) data, pointing to the need for new econometric solutions. In this book, many of our most distinguished scholars in the field of cointegration offer a variety of solutions to these problems by formulating new models, tests, and asymptotics more suitable for an I(2) world. Several of the papers apply these cointegration techniques to a variety of empirical problems, thereby showing how to obtain valuable information about some of the mechanisms that have generated the recent crises.

Advances in Multi-Sensor Information Fusion: Theory and Applications 2017

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ISBN: 9783038429333 9783038429340 Year: Pages: VIII, 560 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Electrical and Nuclear Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-26 15:21:03
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The information fusion technique can integrate a large amount of data and knowledge representing the same real-world object and obtain a consistent, accurate and useful representation of that object. The data may be independent or redundant, and can be obtained by different sensors at the same time or at different times. A suitable combination of investigative methods can substantially increase the profit of information in comparison with that from a single sensor.Multi-sensor information fusion has been a key issue in sensor research since the 1970s and it has been applied in many fields, such as geospatial information systems, business intelligence, oceanography, discovery science, intelligent transport systems, wireless sensor networks, etc. Recently, thanks to the vast development in sensor and computer memory technologies, more and more sensors are being used in practical systems and a large amount of measurement data are recorded and restored, which may actually be the "time series big data". For example, sensors in machines and process control industries can generate a lot of data, which have real, actionable business value. The fusion of these data can greatly improve productivity through digitization.The goal of this Special Issue is to report on innovative ideas and solutions for the methods of multi-sensor information fusion in the emerging applications era, focusing on development, adoption and applications.

Mobile Learning

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ISBN: 9783038976608 Year: Pages: 86 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-661-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Education --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Mobile learning has become one of the more influential aspects of the field of educational technology, given the ubiquity of modern mobile devices and proliferation of educational applications or ‘apps’. Within this volume, there are a range of studies and reviews which cover a breadth of current topics in the field, namely user motivations for using mobile learning, issues in evaluation, as well as domain-specific considerations (e.g., use within language learning or audio-based applications). Together, these studies represent the synthesis of a range of methods, approaches, and applications that highlight benefits and areas of future growth of mobile technologies and how they can be useful and most effective in education.

Skin-Related Neglected Tropical Diseases (Skin-NTDs)—A New Challenge

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ISBN: 9783039212538 / 9783039212545 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-254-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This Special Issue explores the range of clinical manifestations and epidemiology of both skin NTDs and common skin disease in endemic regions, the use of common diagnostic and management pathways, the different technologies that play a role in diagnosis and training, the role of patient involvement at a community level, as well as the assessment of the results of different initiatives in the field.

Keywords

Mycobacterium ulcerans --- animal reservoir --- transmission --- scabies --- Cushing syndrome --- iatrogenic --- topical corticosteroids --- teledermatology --- eHealth --- mHealth --- long range diagnosis --- dermatology --- telepathology --- technology --- skin disease --- podoconiosis --- lymphedema --- neglected tropical diseases --- NTDs --- mental health --- community engagement --- patient involvement --- stigma --- teledermatology --- Africa --- primary health care --- skin diseases --- tele-expertise --- yaws --- Treponema pallidum --- onchodermatitis --- onchocercal skin disease --- onchocerciasis --- ivermectin --- mycetoma --- clinical presentation --- review --- scabies --- neglected tropical diseases --- impetigo --- mass drug administration --- ivermectin --- integration --- neglected tropical diseases --- disease mapping --- mass drug administration --- morbidity management --- skin diseases --- mobile phone application --- NTDs --- dermatology --- mHealth --- leprosy --- leprosy --- leprosy diagnosis --- PCR --- slit skin smears --- point of care test --- skin biopsy --- early diagnosis --- scabies --- outbreak --- drought --- emergency state --- scabies --- diagnosis --- digital handheld microscope --- resource-poor setting --- Amerindian communities --- Amazon lowland --- case management --- integration --- mass drug administration --- neglected tropical diseases --- skin infections --- skin NTDs --- surveillance --- training --- tropical skin diseases --- n/a --- Mite-Gallery Unit (MGU) --- Entodermoscopy (EDS) --- Dry Dermatoscopy (d-DS) --- Wet Dermatoscopy (w-DS) --- Enhanced Dermatoscopy (e-DS) --- subcutaneous mycosis --- actinomycetoma --- eumycetoma --- sporotrichosis Community dermatology

Biofuels and Biochemicals Production

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ISBN: 9783038425540 9783038425557 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-555-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-10 12:39:10
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The high demand and depletion of petroleum reserves and the associated impact on the environment, together with volatility in the energy market price over the past three decades, have led to tremendous efforts in bio-based research activities, especially in biofuels and biochemicals. Most people associate petroleum with gasoline, however, approximately 6000 petroleum-derived products are available on the market today. Ironically, these petroleum-derived products have not elicited a high level of interest among the populace and media due, in part, to little awareness of the origins of these important products. Given the finite nature of petroleum, it is critical to devote substantial amounts of energy and resources on the development of renewable chemicals, as is currently done for fuels. Theoretically, the bioproduction of gasoline-like fuels and the 6000 petroleum-derived products are within the realm of possibility since our aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems contain abundant and diverse microorganisms capable of catalyzing unlimited numbers of reactions. Moreover, the fields of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering have evolved to the point that a wide range of microorganisms can be enticed or manipulated to catalyze foreign, or improve indigenous, biosynthetic reactions. To increase the concentration of products of interest and to ensure consistent productivity and yield, compatible fermentation processes must be used. Greater agricultural and chemical production during the past three decades, due in part to population increase and industrialization, has generated increasing levels of waste, which must be treated prior to discharge into waterways or wastewater treatment plants. Thus, in addition to the need to understand the physiology and metabolism of microbial catalysts of biotechnological significance, development of cost-effective fermentation strategies to produce biofuels and chemicals of interests while generating minimal waste, or better yet, converting waste into value-added products, is crucial. In this Special Issue, we invite authors to submit original research and review articles that increase our understanding of fermentation technology vis-à-vis production of liquid biofuels and biochemicals, and fermentation strategies that alleviate product toxicity to the fermenting microorganism while enhancing productivity. Further, original research articles and reviews focused on anaerobic digestion, production of gaseous biofuels, fermentation optimization using modelling and simulations, metabolic engineering, or development of tailor-made fermentation processes are welcome.

100% Renewable Energy Transition: Pathways and Implementation

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039280346 / 9783039280353 Year: Pages: 356 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-035-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Energy markets are already undergoing considerable transitions to accommodate new (renewable) energy forms, new (decentral) energy players, and new system requirements, e.g. flexibility and resilience. Traditional energy markets for fossil fuels are therefore under pressure, while not-yet-mature (renewable) energy markets are emerging. As a consequence, investments in large-scale and capital intensive (traditional) energy production projects are surrounded by high uncertainty, and are difficult to hedge by private entities. Traditional energy production companies are transforming into energy service suppliers and companies aggregating numerous potential market players are emerging, while regulation and system management are playing an increasing role. To address these increasing uncertainties and complexities, economic analysis, forecasting, modeling and investment assessment require fresh approaches and views. Novel research is thus required to simulate multiple actor interplays and idiosyncratic behavior. The required approaches cannot deal only with energy supply, but need to include active demand and cover systemic aspects. Energy market transitions challenge policy-making. Market coordination failure, the removal of barriers hindering restructuring and the combination of market signals with command-and-control policy measures are some of the new aims of policies.The aim of this Special Issue is to collect research papers that address the above issues using novel methods from any adequate perspective, including economic analysis, modeling of systems, behavioral forecasting, and policy assessment.The issue will include, but is not be limited to: Local control schemes and algorithms for distributed generation systems; Centralized and decentralized sustainable energy management strategies; Communication architectures, protocols and properties of practical applications; Topologies of distributed generation systems improving flexibility, efficiency and power quality; Practical issues in the control design and implementation of distributed generation systems; Energy transition studies for optimized pathway options aiming for high levels of sustainability

Keywords

energy system modelling --- storage solutions --- 100% renewable energy --- Åland --- vehicle-to-grid --- power-to-gas --- blockchain --- community --- energy market --- electric vehicle --- Demand Response --- gamification --- microgeneration --- renewable energy --- energy system modeling --- decarbonization --- global energy system model (GENeSYS-MOD) --- renewables --- India --- energy transformation --- energy transition --- sector coupling --- microgrid --- microgrid by design --- energy community --- net metering --- prosumer --- regulation --- resilience --- immunity --- Solid State Transformer --- electrostatic-driven inertia --- variable renewable energy sources --- wind power --- solar energy --- Germany --- pumped hydro storage --- system-friendly renewables --- energy storage --- ship’s electrical power system --- dynamic positioning --- blackout prevention --- maritime transportation --- energy system optimisation --- carbon dioxide reduction --- renewable energy --- sector-coupling --- open energy modelling --- market value --- decarbonization --- energy system modeling --- GENeSYS-MOD --- renewables --- energy policy --- energy transformation --- Energiewende --- European electricity system --- interconnector capacities --- delayed grid expansion --- electricity market modeling --- decarbonization --- renewable integration --- renewable transition --- numeric modelling --- Mexico --- climate policies --- energy transition --- energy policy --- GENeSYS-MOD --- island energy system transition --- 100% RE pathways --- RE integration --- smart grid technologies --- energy sector integration --- smart energy system --- Samsø --- Orkney --- Madeira --- transport sector --- transportation demand --- final energy demand --- road --- rail --- marine --- aviation --- levelized cost of mobility --- greenhouse gas emissions --- electrification --- agent-based modelling --- flexibility --- renewable energy --- electricity markets

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