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Forest Management and Water Resources in the Anthropocene

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ISBN: 9783038425755 9783038425762 Year: Pages: VIII, 222 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-576-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-06 12:44:47
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Decades of research has provided a depth of understanding on the relationships among forests and water, and how these relationships change in response to climate variability, disturbance, and forest management. This understanding has facilitated a strong predictive capacity and the development of best management practices to protect water resources with active management. Despite this understanding, the rapid pace of changes in climate, disturbance regimes, invasive species, human population growth, and land use expected in the 21st century is likely to create substantial challenges for watershed management that may require new approaches, models, and best management practices. These challenges are likely to be complex and large scale, involving a combination of direct effects and indirect biophysical watershed responses, as well as socioeconomic impacts and feedbacks. We explore the complex relationships between forests and water in a rapidly changing environment, examine the trade-offs and conflicts between water and other resources, and examine new management approaches for sustaining water resources in the future.

Coastal Hazards Related to Storm Surge

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ISBN: 9783038427117 9783038427124 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-712-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-16 13:24:01
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Globally, the risk associated with living in the coastal zone is substantial and rising due to large and growing populations, commerce and infrastructure; relative sea level rise; and the impacts of a warming climate on storm characteristics. The principal coastal hazards in much of the world are storm surge, coastal flooding and surface waves caused by severe tropical or extra-tropical storms. This volume presents state of the art research that extends our understanding of, and our ability to predict coastal hazards that are associated with storm surge. Fourteen papers cover topics ranging from predicting coupled surge and wave dynamics at multiple scales; erosion and scour; statistical considerations for hazard delineation; joint effects of climate change and storm surge; storm surge mitigation strategies and human response to storm surge threats. This work presents important advancements in our ability to predict, mitigate and respond to the principal hazard threatening most of the world's coastal areas. Recognizing these advancements and translating them into policy and practice are essential if we are to effectively manage coastal risk and create more resilient coastal communities in which to live, work and recreate.

Hillslope and Watershed Hydrology

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ISBN: 9783038429517 9783038429524 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-952-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-14 11:41:26
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Watershed hydrology is driven by climate forcing, near ground surface characteristics, and human activities, addressing a wide spectrum of environmental and water resource problems regarding both scientific-driven questions and practical engineering issues. This book collates watershed problems and solutions from around the world covering diverse climate types. These cases show complex interactions between hydrological processes and environmental conditions and scientific methods for understanding the hydrological regime and management of human activities. This book can be used as a state-of-the-art resource for academic researchers and water resource professionals, and will also appeal to students, scholars, and general readers interested in watershed models, water management, environmental management, climate change impact assessment, or ecohydrologic interactions.

Water Policy, Productivity and Economic Efficiency

ISBN: 9783038420125 9783038420132 Year: Pages: 212 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 06:56:29
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Over the past few decades, water policies have undergone significant changes in many countries, notably due to the development of national and international political, social, and environmental issues, including globalization, trade liberalization, institutional and legal requirements, changing standards of living, management practices, and technological innovation. Policy changes include both “high level” views about water status and practical instruments, in particular with an emphasis on integrated basin management and economic policy instruments. A relevant part of the water policy literature addresses this topic, mainly as an issue related to environmental conservation. However, water remains a major productive factor, particularly in agriculture. This role is made even more prominent in light of economic crises, increased competition across markets and climate change, as well as fossil energy limitations, which also highlight the water–energy nexus as a key resource issue for future economic viability. The delay, in the past, in recognizing the economic consequences of a limited water supply, and in decoupling economic development from water demand and supply, has resulted in a water-dependent growth model, currently threatened by increasing scarcity and droughts. Consequently, there is now an urgent need for new perspectives for promoting a more sustainable and efficient use of water resources. This calls for, on the one hand, a comprehensive understanding of water efficiency and productivity and, on the other hand, an investigation of the linkages among economic sectors to illustrate trade-offs in water reallocations. In addition, this also points to the need to study the institutional innovations and economic evaluation instruments that are able to better assess policy performance and provide evidence for improved mechanism designs aimed specifically at water efficiency and productivity.

Calibration/Validation of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometers and Applications

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ISBN: 9783038423188 9783038423195 Year: Pages: X, 548 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-319-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-17 12:17:45
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In a new era of global awareness and globalization, what’s happening around the world in real-time such as hurricanes, volcanic eruption, fires, drought, pollution, and other environmental and climate challenges are becoming increasingly more important and affect people’s lives. To meet these challenges, Earth observations from a new generation of satellites have now become available giving us unprecedented capabilities to monitor and study our planet. With global coverage twice daily for the next several decades, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometers on polar orbiting satellites provide rich and publically available data sets for a large number of land, atmosphere, and ocean applications, including the monitoring of aerosols, cloud properties, radiation budget, sea surface temperature, ocean color, active fire, albedo, snow and ice, vegetation, land use/land cover, night-lights from human activities, and natural disasters. Calibration and validation of these satellite observations are essential to ensure the quality, accuracy, precision, and stability of the data for the applications. This book will review recent advances in satellite optical sensor calibration and validation methodologies, algorithms, and techniques. Example calibration and validation of environmental data products are also discussed. It aims to serve all professionals, researchers, students, scientists alike in academics, industries, government, and beyond.

Climate Change, Coasts and Coastal Risk

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038974819 9783038974826 Year: Pages: 298 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-482-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Engineering --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-08 11:04:26
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The combination of coastal climate change impacts and their effects on the ever-increasing human utilization of the coastal zone will invariably result in increasing coastal risk in the coming decades. However, while economic damage (potential consequence) caused by climate change-driven coastal inundation and erosion (potential hazard) is likely to increase, foregoing land-use opportunities in coastal regions and protecting or nourishing coasts is also costly. Managing the risk of coastline recession is therefore a balancing act.To avoid unacceptable future risks, it is imperative that risk-informed and sustainable coastal planning/management strategies are implemented sooner rather than later. This requires the development of methods for comprehensive coastal risk assessments which combine state-of-the-art consequence (or damage) modeling and coastal hazard modeling. This Special Issue contains 13 papers aimed at addressing this challenge.

Preservation of Cultural Heritage and Resources Threatened by Climate Change

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ISBN: 9783039211241 9783039211258 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-125-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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With its wide spectrum of data, case studies, monitoring, and experimental and numerical simulation techniques, the multidisciplinary approach of material, environmental, and computer science applied to the conservation of cultural heritage offers several opportunities for the heritage science and conservation community to map and monitor state-of-the-art knowledge on natural and human-induced climate change impacts on cultural heritage—mainly constituted by the built environment—in Europe and Latin America. Geosciences’ Special Issue titled “Preservation of Cultural Heritage and Resources Threatened by Climate Change” was launched to take stock of the existing but still fragmentary knowledge on this challenge, and to enable the community to respond to the implementation of the Paris agreement. These 10 papers exploit a broad range of data derived from preventive conservation monitoring conducted indoors in museums, churches, historical buildings, or outdoors in archeological sites and city centers. Case studies presented in the papers focus on a well-assorted sample of decay phenomena occurring on heritage materials (e.g., surface recession and biomass accumulation on limestone, depositions of pollutant on marble, salt weathering on inorganic building materials, and weathering processes on mortars in many local- to regional-scale study areas in the Scandinavian Peninsula, the United Kingdom, Belgium, France, Italy, Greece, and Panama). Besides monitoring, the methodological approaches showcased include, but are not limited to, original material characterization, decay product characterization, and climate and numerical modelling on material components for assessing environmental impact and climate change effects.

Integrated Soil and Water Management: Selected Papers from 2016 International SWAT Conference

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783038428152 9783038428169 Year: Pages: X, 490 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-24 08:55:09
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Soil and water are two key life-sustaining resources on Earth. If not protected, both elements will become humanity’s worst nightmares. Uncontrollable water flows, polluted water, and lack of water on the one hand, and infertile soils, polluted soils, dust-storms, and topsoil erosion, on the other hand, can wreak havoc on human life and threaten its very existence. Ensuing dangers from climate change and population growth will further strain these resources. To stop disaster scenarios from happening, our only way is to manage these prized resources. Modeling programs, such as SWAT, are valuable tools in finding ways of combating food and water insecurity, and mitigating the impact of climate change and growing demands of resources. This Special Issue of Water is designed to show the results of analyses of scientists from all over the world in dealing with various environmental problems. The papers here are selected from the works presented at the 16th International SWAT conference held in Beijng. The information and analyses are intended to contribute to the development and implementation of effective soil and water management programs.

Extreme Floods and Droughts under Future Climate Scenarios

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039218981 9783039218998 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-899-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Meteorology and Climatology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Hydroclimatic extremes, such as floods and droughts, affect aspects of our lives and the environment including energy, hydropower, agriculture, transportation, urban life, and human health and safety. Climate studies indicate that the risk of increased flooding and/or more severe droughts will be higher in the future than today, causing increased fatalities, environmental degradation, and economic losses. Using a suite of innovative approaches this book quantifies the changes in projected hydroclimatic extremes and illustrates their impacts in several locations in North America, Asia, and Europe.

Water Resources Assessment and Management in Drylands

ISBN: 9783038422471 9783038422488 Year: Pages: XXII, 302 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-15 12:12:28
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Drylands are fragile environments and, therefore, highly susceptible to environmental changes. They cover nearly 50% of the world’s land surface and are increasingly being reclaimed by a growing population for food production and urbanization. This makes water resources management in drylands an extremely important issue. The unplanned water resources development may result in aquifer depletion, soil and/or water salinization, loss of water through evapotranspiration due to inadequate irrigation systems, and land degradation (e.g., soil erosion, soil crusting, and sand encroachment).

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