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AR Signaling in Human Malignancies: Prostate Cancer and Beyond

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ISBN: 9783038427407 9783038427391 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-739-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-16 08:45:39
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The notion that androgens and androgen receptor (AR) signaling are the hallmarks of prostate cancer oncogenesis and disease progression is generally well accepted. What is more poorly understood is the role of AR signaling in other human malignancies. This Special Issue of Cancers initially reviews the role of AR in advanced prostate cancer, and then explores the potential importance of AR signaling in other epithelial malignancies. The first few articles focus on the use of novel AR-targeting therapies in castration-resistant prostate cancer and the mechanisms of resistance to novel antiandrogens, and they also outline the interaction between AR and other cellular pathways, including PI3 kinase signaling, transcriptional regulation, angiogenesis, stromal factors, Wnt signaling, and epigenetic regulation in prostate cancer. The next several articles review the possible role of androgens and AR signaling in breast cancer, bladder cancer, salivary gland cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as the potential treatment implications of using antiandrogen therapies in these non-prostatic malignancies.

Natural Products for Cancer Prevention and Therapy

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ISBN: 9783038973102 9783038973119 Year: Pages: 260 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-311-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-07 10:17:54
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.[This Special Issue book, “Natural Products for Cancer Prevention and Therapy”, is based on recent advances in natural products for cancer prevention and therapy. For this purpose, the authors of this book have been organizing a biennial international conference series. The first meeting (First International Conference on Natural Products for Cancer Prevention and Therapy) was held in Istanbul between 31 August and 2 September 2015, with the support and contribution of many valuable researchers in this field. The abstracts of the first conference were published in the Anticancer Drugs journal as a supplement. The second meeting, namely The Second International Conference on Natural Products for Cancer Prevention and Therapy, was held at Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey, between 8 and 11 November 2017. The abstracts of all of the presentations from the second meeting were published in the Special Issue of Proceedings by the MDPI publishing group. Furthermore, the conference report and the selected full-length papers based on the presentations at the meeting, as well as other papers based on natural products for cancer prevention and therapy, were published as a Special Issue of the Nutrients journal from MDPI. This Special Issue has contributions from various participants of the aforementioned conference, as well as other cancer and natural product researchers. These contributions include original research papers, authoritative and up-to-date reviews, and commentaries on the following topics and areas:•Natural products for the prevention and therapy of oncologic diseases•Mechanism of natural agents for anticancer and cancer preventive effects•In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies related to natural agents and cancer•Combinatorial effects of phytochemicals and cancer chemotherapeutic drugs•Challenges and innovative approaches for anticancer drug development based on natural products•Emerging studies on anticancer phytochemicals]

Polyphenols for Cancer Treatment or Prevention

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ISBN: 9783038426486 9783038426493 Year: Pages: 554 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-12 11:40:45
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Polyphenols are commonly found in fruits and vegetables, and have been suggested to have protective effects against chronic diseases, such as cancers. They are a diverse group of molecules, many of which possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, epigenetic, drug sensitization, and/or modulation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme properties. However, there is mixed evidence regarding their protective effects with respect to various cancers. Some of this controversy may be due to the combination of polyphenols administered, synergistic effects of accompanying compounds, bio-accessibility, bioavailability, effect of gut microbiota, and the type of cancer investigated. The purpose of this Special Issue is to present the recent evidence for the effect of polyphenol intake on cancer, as well as mechanisms of action. This Special Issue, entitled "Polyphenols for Cancer Treatment or Prevention", welcomes manuscript submissions of original research, meta-analyses, or reviews of the scientific literature. Authors should focus their manuscripts on polyphenol bioactives or dietary patterns naturally rich in polyphenols that have been identified and used for the prevention and or treatment of cancer.

Diagnostic, Prognostic and Predictive Biological Markers in Bladder Cancer – Illumination of a Vision

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ISBN: 9783038976349 9783038976356 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-635-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics --- Pathology --- Urology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-21 09:26:53
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This Special Issue has been introduced with the aim of offering the possibility to publish new research results from old and new pioneers in the field of bladder cancer basic research. While editing this Special Issue we learned that an enormous enthusiasm is necessary to go on in bladder cancer research. In our eyes, bladder cancer is on one hand a very heterogenous malignancy, which is what makes it so difficult to focus on only one bladder cancer marker in bladder cancer diagnostics and follow-up. On the other hand, it is very important to find prognostic and predictive factors for bladder cancer due to its high incidence and its enormous costs, as one of the most expensive malignancies in the world. Finding and developing new bladder cancer markers is still a very dynamic field. Because there are many of these markers, it is impossible to report all of them. This Special Issue attempts to highlight the role of bladder cancer markers in diagnosis, and the most important biomarkers that have been recently studied and reported. This Special Issue highlights some of the most important markers. Further determination of recurrence and progression markers will contribute to establishing better treatments for individual patients. Molecular staging of urological tumors will allow the selection of cases that will require systemic treatment. It is necessary and important to integrate basic and clinical research under the same objectives.

Expert Views on HPV Infection

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ISBN: 9783038428374 9783038428381 Year: Pages: X, 384 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-04 12:00:02
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections cause approximately 5% of all human cancers. While there are efficacious prophylactic vaccines that prevent infections with the most common cancer-associated HPVs, these vaccines are not widely available in low-resource settings and in many countries, including the US, HPV vaccination rates have remained disappointingly low. Moreover, vaccination does not modify existing HPV infections and the incidence of HPV-associated anal and oropharyngeal cancers has steadily increased and is projected to overtake the caseload of cervical cancer in the next two years. Hence, infections with cancer-associated HPVs will remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality, worldwide. This book provides state-of-the-art summaries and expert viewpoints on unresolved, controversial or emerging topics related to the natural history, evolution, biology, and disease association of papillomavirus infection. The individual chapters cover a wide range of thought provoking topics.

An Updated View on an Emerging Target: Selected Papers from the 8th International Conference on Protein Kinase CK2

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ISBN: 9783038424130 9783038424123 Year: Pages: 320 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-413-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-12 07:57:21
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The 8th International Conference on Protein Kinase CK2 (www.uks.eu/ck2), organized by Matthias Montenarh and Claudia Götz, will be held at the Faculty of Medicine of Saarland University, in Homburg, Germany, from 6–9 September, 2016.Protein kinase CK2 is a serine/threonine kinase, which is highly conserved in evolution. Knock-out experiments have shown that this enzyme is absolutely necessary for cell viability. The enzyme is highly expressed in rapidly proliferating cells, which goes along with an elevated enzyme activity. Protein kinase CK2 is involved in a broad range of signaling pathways, regulating proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, or senescence. Recent advances towards the characterization of the three-dimensional structure of protein kinase CK2 and its subunits will undoubtedly yield important new insights into its regulation, and the functions of CK2. Moreover, with two inhibitors of the enzyme presently in clinical phase II trials, human protein kinase CK2 has appeared as an emerging target for cancer diseases.

The Tumor Microenvironment of High Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer

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ISBN: 9783038975540 9783038975557 Year: Pages: 434 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-555-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-06 09:22:42
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The Special Issue on high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) and the contribution of the tumor microenviroment (TME) consists of reviews contributed by leaders in the OC field. As HGSOC metastases have a highly complex TME, there is an urgent need to better understand the TME in general, its distinct components in particular, and the role of the TME in the context of disease recurrence and development of chemoresistance. The Special Issue incorporates the current understanding of the different parts of thd TME components, including the cancer cells themselves, the cells surrounding the cancer cells or stromal cells, and the cells of the immune system, which are attracted to the site of metastases. In addition to these cells of the TME, the role of various cellular factors made by the cells of the TME are also the subject of the reviews. In addition, reviews in this Special Issue cover the complex relationships between the molecular mechanisms of HGSOC progression, including genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic changes and changes in the immune cell landscape, as these may provide attractive new molecular targets for HGSOC therapy.

Treatment Strategies and Survival Outcomes in Breast Cancer

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ISBN: 9783039287581 / 9783039287598 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-759-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Treatment strategies for breast cancer are wide-ranging and often based on a multi-modality approach, depending on the stage and biology of the tumour and the acceptance and tolerance of the patient. They may include surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapy (endocrine therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy). Advances in technologies such as oncoplastic surgery, radiation planning and delivery, and genomics, and the development of novel systemic therapy agents alongside their evaluation in ongoing clinical trials continue to strive for improvements in outcomes. In this Special Issue, we publish a collection of studies looking at all forms of therapeutic strategies for early and advanced breast cancer, focusing on their outcomes, notably survival.

Keywords

advanced breast cancer --- metastatic --- chemotherapy --- antihormone therapy --- HER2 c-erbB2 --- HER2/neu --- trastuzumab --- pertuzumab --- T-DM1 --- lapatinib --- LKB1 --- Breast Cancer --- Older women --- Metformin --- Endocrine therapy --- breast cancer --- breast-conserving therapy --- mastectomy --- outcome --- comparative effectiveness --- metastatic breast cancer --- liquid biopsy --- cell-free DNA --- next-generation sequencing --- circulating tumor cells --- overdiagnosis --- mammography screening --- invasive breast cancer --- zero-inflated Poisson regression model --- breast cancer --- stage IV --- incidence --- tumor biology --- NCDB --- SEER --- Src kinase --- basal-like breast cancer --- cMet --- breast cancer --- radiotherapy --- lymph-node ratio --- disease-free survival --- physical activity --- breast cancer survivors --- physical function --- social well-being --- exercise characteristics --- APOBEC3B --- gene expression --- breast cancer --- ductal carcinoma in situ --- infiltrating breast cancer --- PIK3CA --- ERCC1 --- anthracycline resistance --- taxane sensitivity --- breast cancer --- colorectal cancer --- relative survival --- older patients --- geriatric oncology --- cancer treatment --- metastatic breast cancer --- lactate dehydrogenase --- serum biomarker --- LDH --- monitoring metastatic breast cancer --- palbociclib --- ribociclib --- abemaciclib --- fulvestrant --- aromatase inhibitors --- metastatic breast cancer --- contralateral prophylactic mastectomy --- contralateral breast cancer --- BRCA --- CHEK2 --- PALB2 --- ATM --- mutation carriers --- family history --- survival --- breast cancer --- young women --- histone deacetylase --- HDAC5 inhibitors --- LMK-235 --- breast cancer --- cyclin E --- older patients --- biomarker --- tumor biology --- prognosis --- survival --- n/a

The Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Cancer

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ISBN: 9783038427933 9783038427940 Year: Pages: VI, 254 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-27 16:09:54
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The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly dynamic process with multiple transitional states, by which epithelial cells can convert into a mesenchymal phenotype. This process involves loss of cellular adhesion and cellular polarity, and an improvement in migratory and invasive properties. It occurs during normal embryonic development, tissue regeneration, organ fibrosis, and wound healing. It is also involved in tumor progression with metastatic expansion, and plays a major role in resistance to cancer treatment. In cancers, EMT inducers are hypoxia, cytokines and growth factors secreted by the tumor microenvironment, stroma crosstalk, metabolic changes, innate and adaptive immune responses, and treatment with antitumor drugs. Switch in gene expression from epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype is triggered by complex regulatory networks involving transcriptional control, non-coding RNAs, chromatin remodeling and epigenetic modifications, alternative splicing, post-translational regulation, protein stability and subcellular localization. Reversion of EMT, the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET), affects circulating cancer cells when they reach a desirable metastatic niche to develop secondary tumors. More knowledge and control of EMT to MET is necessary and will be beneficial for patients for cancer treatment. This current Special Issue entitled “Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Cancer” will address these questions.

Marine Compounds and Cancer

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ISBN: 9783038427650 9783038427667 Year: Pages: VI, 112 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-26 13:37:12
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In Western countries, cancer is among the most frequent causes of death. Despite striking advances in cancer therapy, especially by the so called “targeted agents”, there is still an urgent need for new drugs in oncology. Hope comes from the marine environment, which is a rich source of natural compounds showing anti-cancer activity. To date, four marine cytotoxic substances, namely cytarabine, trabectidine, eribulin, and monomethyl auristatin E (as a drug-antibody conjugate named vedotin) have made it into clinical routine. Many more are in all phases of clinical testing, and a plethora of substances has already been examined for in vitro and in vivo activity.Interestingly, more and more precise research tools allow the dissection of the molecular mode of action of these cytotoxic substances, thereby uncovering the specific drug targets in cancer cells. This development will blur the edges between “targeted” and “untargeted” therapy, and will hopefully lead to a more directed use of cancer medicine (based on a molecular rationale of activity) in the future.This Topical Collection will cover the whole scope from agents with cancer-preventive activity, to novel and previously characterized compounds with anti-cancer activity, both in vitro and in vivo, and the latest status of clinical development from drug trials. Of note, compounds possessing pro-carcinogenic activity or mediating cancer cell survival are also within the scope of this Topical Collection. In addition, a special focus will be placed on current shortfalls and possible strategies to overcome obstacles in the area of marine anti-cancer drug development.

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