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The Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Cancer

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ISBN: 9783038427933 9783038427940 Year: Pages: VI, 254 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-27 16:09:54
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The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly dynamic process with multiple transitional states, by which epithelial cells can convert into a mesenchymal phenotype. This process involves loss of cellular adhesion and cellular polarity, and an improvement in migratory and invasive properties. It occurs during normal embryonic development, tissue regeneration, organ fibrosis, and wound healing. It is also involved in tumor progression with metastatic expansion, and plays a major role in resistance to cancer treatment. In cancers, EMT inducers are hypoxia, cytokines and growth factors secreted by the tumor microenvironment, stroma crosstalk, metabolic changes, innate and adaptive immune responses, and treatment with antitumor drugs. Switch in gene expression from epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype is triggered by complex regulatory networks involving transcriptional control, non-coding RNAs, chromatin remodeling and epigenetic modifications, alternative splicing, post-translational regulation, protein stability and subcellular localization. Reversion of EMT, the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET), affects circulating cancer cells when they reach a desirable metastatic niche to develop secondary tumors. More knowledge and control of EMT to MET is necessary and will be beneficial for patients for cancer treatment. This current Special Issue entitled “Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Cancer” will address these questions.

Catalytic Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds

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ISBN: 9783038422136 9783038422143 Year: Pages: 290 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-214-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-07-12 11:17:23
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Spin-Crossover Complexes

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ISBN: 9783038428251 9783038428268 Year: Pages: VI, 200 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-26 14:01:59
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The spin-crossover (SCO) phenomenon originates from the intrinsic bistability of the d-electron configuration, created by the competition between ligand-field splitting and spin-pairing energies in a first coordination sphere of transition metal ions. Since Cambi’s visionary finding of the SCO phenomenon in 1931, considerable knowledge concerning syntheses, crystal structures, magnetic and thermodynamic properties, spectroscopies, molecular orbital calculations, and theories of SCO complexes has accumulated in a very large number of inorganic molecular coordination compounds, and, in addition, inorganic cobaltates and bioinorganic molecular systems. Recent studies which have focused on other electronic properties exhibited by SCO complexes themselves, control of molecular assemblies, and moreover, multifunctionalization of SCO complexes with either different electronic properties or porous frameworks will open the possibility toward future practical applications of SCO complexes. Thus, the fundamentals and applications of SCO complexes afford a very exciting research field in inorganic coordination chemistry and continues to attract growing attention on a wide range of relevant research fields. This Special Issue aims at collecting research and review contributions concerning recent advances in all aspects of SCO and related phenomena and disseminating this extensive knowledge with a broader audience by means of open access publishing. I invite you to contribute papers in the following research areas so that your research can impact the next generation trends in this promising field.

Nanoparticles for Catalysis

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ISBN: 9783038425366 9783038425373 Year: Pages: X, 154 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-25 13:21:26
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The present book is aimed at illustrating the width of applications of metal nanoparticles in catalysis. It covers aspects such as metal nanoparticles preparation using natural biomolecules to the catalytic, photocatalytic and electrocatalytic activity of supported metal nanoparticles. In catalysis, metal nanoparticles exhibit general activity in oxidation and reduction reactions and the book contains examples of both types of processes in which the nanoparticles are on carbon supports or embedded inside the voids of microporous crystalline metal organic frameworks. Metal nanoparticles are also widely used in photocatalysis to enhance light absorption through plasmon band and the efficiency of the photochemical process. Besides classical applications, the use of metal nanoparticles is expanding rapidly in the field of renewable energies, going from catalysts for solid fuels electrodes to novel Li-O2 batteries.

Sustainability Transition Towards a Bio-Based Economy: New Technologies, New Products, New Policies

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ISBN: 9783038973805 9783038973812 Year: Pages: 256 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-381-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Ecology --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-29 10:05:43
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This book proposes an array of 11 key papers aimed at investigating the complex and multifaceted nature of the bio-based economy, focusing both on a conceptual understanding of the transition and on the measurement issues associated with it. More specifically, the papers included in this book can be broadly divided in two groups: (1) those aiming at adding to our understanding of the transition process towards a sustainable bio-based economy; and (2) those aiming at adding to the definition and measurement of the emerging sustainable bio-based economy. The book offers a comprehensive view of the phenomenon, providing a logical framework for understanding the ongoing transition towards a bio-based economy, as well as an overview of existing tools to assess and measure it. Policy-makers will largely benefit from the book, which contributes to taking a further step towards the much-needed transition to sustainability.

Two-Dimensional Electronics - Prospects and Challenges

ISBN: 9783038422495 9783038422501 Year: Pages: XVI, 248 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Electrical and Nuclear Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2016-09-02 17:56:27
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During the past 10 years, two-dimensional materials have found incredible attention in the scientific community. The first two-dimensional material studied in detail was graphene, and many groups explored its potential for electronic applications. Meanwhile, researchers have extended their work to two-dimensional materials beyond graphene. At present, several hundred of these materials are known and part of them is considered to be useful for electronic applications. Rapid progress has been made in research concerning two-dimensional electronics, and a variety of transistors of different two-dimensional materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, e.g., MoS2 and WS2, and phosphorene, have been reported. Other areas where two-dimensional materials are considered promising are sensors, transparent electrodes, or displays, to name just a few. This Special Issue of Electronics is devoted to all aspects of two-dimensional materials for electronic applications, including material preparation and analysis, device fabrication and characterization, device physics, modeling and simulation, and circuits. The devices of interest include, but are not limited to transistors (both field-effect transistors and alternative transistor concepts), sensors, optoelectronics devices, MEMS and NEMS, and displays.

Synthesis and Applications of New Spin Crossover Compounds

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ISBN: 9783039213610 9783039213627 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-362-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The crystal chemistry of spin crossover (SCO) behavior in coordination compounds can potentially be in association with smart materials—promising materials for applications as components of memory devices, displays, sensors and mechanical devices and, especially, actuators, such as artificial muscles. This Special Issue is devoted to various aspects of SCO and related research, comprising 18 interesting original papers on valuable and important SCO topics. Significant and fundamental scientific attention has been focused on the SCO phenomena in a wide research range of fields of fundamental chemical and physical and related sciences, containing the interdisciplinary regions of chemical and physical sciences related to the SCO phenomena. Coordination materials with bistable systems between the LS and the HS states are usually triggered by external stimuli, such as temperature, light, pressure, guest molecule inclusion, soft X-ray, and nuclear decay. Since the first Hofmann-like spin crossover (SCO) behavior in {Fe(py)2[Ni(CN)4]}n (py = pyridine) was demonstrated, this crystal chemistry motif has been frequently used to design Fe(II) SCO materials to enable determination of the correlations between structural features and magnetic properties.

Keywords

spin crossover --- spin transition --- cobalt(II) ion --- paramagnetic ligand --- aminoxyl --- switch --- mosaicity --- spin crossover --- X-ray diffraction --- fatigability --- single crystal --- phase transition --- structural disorder --- spin-crossover --- dinuclear triple helicate --- Fe(II) --- solvent effects --- metal dithiolene complexes --- [Au(dmit)2]?, [Au(dddt)2]? --- ion-pair crystals --- [Fe(III)(3-OMesal2-trien)]+ --- coordination complexes --- crystal structure --- magnetic properties --- magnetic susceptibility --- magnetization --- spin-crossover transition --- Fe(II) complex --- dipyridyl-N-alkylamine ligands --- high spin (HS) --- low spin (LS) --- spin cross-over (SCO) --- magnetic transition --- cobalt oxide --- spin polaron --- impurity effect --- spin-state crossover --- coordination polymer --- supramolecular isomerism --- spin crossover --- crystal engineering --- spin crossover --- X-ray absorption spectroscopy --- soft X-ray induced excited spin state trapping --- high spin --- spin-crossover --- LIESST effect --- hydrogen bonding --- ?-? interactions --- charge-transfer phase transition --- iron mixed-valence complex --- hetero metal complex --- dithiooxalato ligand --- substitution of 3d transition metal ion --- ferromagnetism --- dielectric response --- 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy --- Fe(III) coordination complexes --- hexadentate ligand --- Schiff base --- spin crossover --- UV-Vis spectroscopy --- SQUID --- EPR spectroscopy --- spin-crossover --- optical microscopy --- reaction diffusion --- spin crossover --- Fe(III) complex --- qsal ligand --- thermal hysteresis --- structure phase transition --- counter-anion --- solvate --- lattice energy --- optical conductivity spectrum --- spiral structure --- 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane --- supramolecular coordination polymer --- chiral propeller structure --- atropisomerism --- spin crossover --- iron(II) complexes --- C–H···? interactions --- magnetic properties --- thermochromism --- spin crossover --- linear pentadentate ligand --- iron(II) --- mononuclear --- 1,2,3-triazole --- crystal structure --- magnetic properties --- DFT calculation --- intermolecular interactions --- amorphous --- spin crossover --- Cu(II) complexes --- nitroxides --- phase transitions --- magnetostructural correlations --- iron (II), spin crossover --- X-ray diffraction --- coordination polymers --- n/a

Two-Dimensional Electronics and Optoelectronics

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ISBN: 9783038424925 9783038424932 Year: Pages: VIII, 143 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-04 11:05:28
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The discovery of monolayer graphene led to a Nobel Prize in Physics being awarded in 2010. This has stimulated further research on a wide variety of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials. The coupling of metallic graphene, semiconducting 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) and black phosphorus have attracted a tremendous amount of interest in new electronic and optoelectronic applications. Together with other 2D materials, such as the wide band gap boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs), all these 2D materials have led towards an emerging field of van der Waal 2D heterostructures. The papers in this book were originally published by Electronics (MDPI) in a Special Issue on “Two-Dimensional Electronics and Optoelectronics”. The book consists of eight papers, including two review articles, covering various pertinent and fascinating issues concerning 2D materials and devices. Further, the potential and the challenges of 2D materials are discussed, which provide up to date guidance for future research and development.

Graphene and Other 2D Layered Nanomaterial-Based Films: Synthesis, Properties and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039219025 9783039219032 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-903-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Organic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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This book is dedicated to highlighting some relevant advances in the field of thin films and coatings based on two-dimensional crystals and layered nanomaterials. Due to their layered structure, graphene and a variety of new 2D inorganic nanosystems, called “graphene analogues”, have all attracted tremendous interest due to their unprecedented properties/superior performance, and may find applications in many fields from electronics to biotechnology. These two-dimensional systems are ultrathin and, hence, tend to be flexible, also presenting distinctive and nearly intrinsic characteristics, including electronic, magnetic, optical, thermal conductivity, and superconducting properties. Furthermore, the combination of different structures and synergetic effects may open new and unprecedented perspectives, making these ideal advanced materials for multifunctional assembled systems. As far as the field of coatings is concerned, new layered nanostructures may offer unique and multifunctional properties, including gas barrier, lubricant, conductive, magnetic, photoactive, self-cleaning, and/or antimicrobial surfaces. This book contains new findings on the synthesis and perspectives of multifunctional films that are at the forefront of the science and coating technologies.

Compact Stars in the QCD Phase Diagram

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039219582 9783039219599 Year: Pages: 273 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-959-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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The book edition of the Universe Special Issue “Compact Stars in the QCD Phase Diagram” is devoted to the overarching aspects shared between heavy-ion collisions and compact star astrophysics in investigating the hadron-to-quark matter phase transition in the equation of state of strongly interacting matter in different regions of the phase diagram of QCD. It comprises 22 review and research articles that, together, will serve as a useful guide in educating both young and senior scientists in this emerging field that represents an intersection of the communities of strongly interacting matter theory, heavy-ion collision physics and compact star astrophysics.

Keywords

heavy-ion collisions --- directed flow --- hydrodynamics --- deconfinement --- hybrid stars --- neutron stars --- equation of state --- ? meson condensation --- maximum mass --- ? resonances --- finite temperature --- finite density --- quark-gluon plasma --- finite size --- speed of sound --- neutron stars --- equation of state --- in-medium effects --- neutrino --- Quantum Chromodynamics --- dense matter --- vector interaction --- neutron stars --- equation of state --- QCD matter --- phase transition --- critical point --- modified excluded-volume mechanism --- dense matter --- equation of state --- stars: neutron --- pulsars: general, pulsars: PSR J0737 ? 3039A --- pulsars: PSR J1757 ? 1854 --- relativistic heavy-ion collisions --- monte carlo simulations --- transport theory --- strangeness --- neutron stars --- star oscillations --- hadron–quark continuity --- neutron stars --- QCD phase diagram --- neutron stars --- stellar magnetic field --- stellar structure --- stellar evolution --- neutron star --- equation of state --- phase transition --- quark matter --- pulsars --- quark stars --- general relativity --- Gravitational waves --- Gamma-ray bursts --- nuclear matter --- neutron stars --- quarks --- combustion --- neutron star --- QCD matter --- phase transition --- critical point --- neutron stars --- gravitational waves --- equation of state --- chiral symmetry --- axion QED --- quark-hole pairing --- cold-dense QCD --- magnetic DCDW --- quark matter --- hadronic matter --- quark deconfinement --- neutron star matter --- nuclear equation of state --- phase transition --- crystalline structure --- neutrino emissivities --- cluster virial expansion --- quark-hadron matter --- Mott dissociation --- Beth-Uhlenbeck equation of state --- heavy-ion collisions --- supernova explosions --- mass-twin stars --- nuclear symmetry energy --- heavy-ion collisions --- transport theory --- collective flow --- light cluster emission --- meson production --- quark-hadron phase transition --- pasta phases --- speed of sound --- hybrid compact stars --- mass-radius relation --- GW170817

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