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Selected Papers from the 1st International Online Conference on Nanomaterials

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ISBN: 9783039285341 9783039285358 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-535-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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This book compiles selected papers from the Proceedings of the 1st International Online Conference on Nanomaterials, held 1–15 September, 2018 on sciforum.net, an online platform for hosting scholarly e-conferences and discussion groups. It targets a broad readership of physicists, chemists, materials scientists, biologists, environmentalists, and nanotechnologists, and provides interesting examples of the most recent advances in the synthesis, characterization, and applications of nanomaterials.

Advances in Catalyst Deactivation

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ISBN: 9783038421870 9783038421887 Year: Pages: X, 300 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-188-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-07 11:25:06
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Catalyst deactivation, the loss over time of catalytic activity and/or selectivity, is a problem of great and continuing concern in the practice of industrial catalytic processes. Costs to industry for catalyst replacement and process shutdown total tens of billions of dollars per year. While catalyst deactivation is inevitable for most processes, some of its immediate, drastic consequences may be avoided, postponed, or even reversed. Accordingly, there is considerable motivation to better understand catalyst decay and regeneration. Indeed, the science of catalyst deactivation and regeneration has been developing rapidly as evidenced by the considerable literature addressing this topic, including 21,000 journal articles, presentations, reports, reviews, and books; and more than 29,000 patents for the period of 1980 to 2012. This developing science provides the foundation for continuing, substantial improvements in the efficiency and economics of catalytic processes through development of catalyst deactivation models, more stable catalysts, and regeneration processes.This special issue focuses on recent advances in catalyst deactivation and regeneration, including advances in (1) scientific understanding of mechanisms; (2) development of improved methods and tools for investigation; and (3) more robust models of deactivation and regeneration.

Soft and Hard Tissue Regeneration

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ISBN: 9783039283040 9783039283057 Year: Pages: 86 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-305-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Dentistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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This special issue entitled “Soft and hard tissue regeneration” will cover both periodontal and implant therapies. Regenerative periodontal treatment goal is to restore functional periodontal support offering a valuable treatment alternative even for teeth with large periodontal destruction, which may be successfully treated and maintained in health for long periods. In most cases where teeth are extracted for periodontal reasons, implant therapy will demand large bone augmentation procedures. Lack of sufficient bone volume may prevent placement of dental implants. In extreme cases, large bone reconstruction is indispensable before implant placement can be performed. Although, most bone grafts are only able to fill and maintain a space, where bone regeneration can occur (“osseoconductive”), the ideal bone graft will also promote osseous regeneration (“osseoinductive”). Several bone augmentation procedures have been described, each, presenting advantages and shortcomings. Success of bone augmentation procedures depends on the presence of bone forming cells, primary wound closure over the augmented area, space creation and maintenance where bone can grow and proper angiogenesis of the grafted area. Factors that influence the choice of the surgical technique are the estimated duration of surgical procedure, its complexity, cost, total estimated length of procedure until the final rehabilitations may be installed and the surgeons’ experience. This special issue will have a definite clinical orientation, and be entirely dedicated to soft and hard tissue regenerative treatment alternatives, both in periodontal and implant therapy, discussing their rationale, indications and clinical procedures. Internationally renowned leading researchers and clinicians will contribute with articles in their field of expertize.

Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health

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ISBN: 9783038978909 9783038978916 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-891-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The impact of fat intake on hypercholesterolemia and related atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases has been studied for decades. However, the current evidence base suggests that fatty acids also influences cardiometabolic diseases through other mechanisms including effects on glucose metabolism, body fat distribution, blood pressure, inflammation, and heart rate. Furthermore, studies evaluating single fatty acids have challenged the simplistic view of shared health effects within fatty acid groups categorized by degree of saturation. In addition, investigations of endogenous fatty acid metabolism, including genetic studies of fatty acid metabolizing enzymes, and the identification of novel metabolically derived fatty acids have further increased the complexity of fatty acids’ health impacts. This Special Issue aims to include original research and up-to-date reviews on genetic and dietary modulation of fatty acids, and the role and function of dietary and metabolically derived fatty acids in cardiometabolic health.

Pharmaceutical Crystals

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ISBN: 9783039287123 / 9783039287130 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-713-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The crystalline state is the most commonly used essential solid active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The characterization of pharmaceutical crystals encompasses many scientific disciplines, but the core is crystal structure analysis, which reveals the molecular structure of essential pharmaceutical compounds. Crystal structure analysis provides important structural information related to the API's wide range of physicochemical properties, such as solubility, stability, tablet performance, color, and hygroscopicity. This book entitled “Pharmaceutical Crystals"" focuses on the relationship between crystal structure and physicochemical properties. In particular, the new crystal structure of pharmaceutical compounds involving multi-component crystals, such as co-crystals, salts, and hydrates, and polymorph crystals are reported. Such crystal structures were investigated in the latest studies that combined morphology, spectroscopic, theoretical calculation, and thermal analysis with crystallographic study. This book highlights the importance of crystal structure information in many areas of pharmaceutical science and presents current trends in the structure–property study of pharmaceutical crystals. The Guest Editors of this book hope the readers enjoy a wide variety of recent studies on Pharmaceutical Crystals.

Geography Education Promoting Sustainability

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ISBN: 9783039285006 / 9783039285013 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-501-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Education
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Through out the current period of educational change, Geography education has also changed. The

Vitamin D and Human Health

ISBN: 9783038420569 9783038420576 Year: Pages: 476 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 08:50:54
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Vitamin D research has expanded greatly over the last 10 years, with a more than two-fold increase in annual publications listed in Pubmed with the key word ‘vitamin D’ from 1675 in 2005 to 3953 in 2014. Part of this increase is due to research showing that vitamin D deficiency is associated with a wide range of diseases and health outcomes. Until the 1980s, the primary focus of vitamin D research (in combination with calcium supplementation) was on bone diseases. Since then, observational studies have linked vitamin D deficiency with increased risk of many diseases: both acute and chronic. This book contains publications on several of these disease groups linked to vitamin D deficiency.

Carbohydrate Intake in Non-communicable Disease Prevention and Treatment

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ISBN: 9783038978183 9783038978190 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-819-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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In 2011, carbohydrates provided 63% of the dietary energy intake to the world&rsquo;s population. Historically, carbohydrate-rich diets have been associated with good health and longevity but there has been a move away from traditional carbohydrate-rich diets, with refined carbohydrate taking much criticism for contributing to non-communicable disease. The aim of this Special Issue is to discuss the appropriate use of environmentally sustainable carbohydrate-rich foods in the modern diet in developing and developed countries in the context of prevention and treatment of non-communicable disease.

New Research in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Major Depression

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ISBN: 9783039210909 9783039210916 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-091-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:07
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Major depression and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) are now recognized among the most frequent psychiatric disorders, affecting 16–17% and 2–3% of the general population, respectively. They are commonly characterized by: i) a high level of psychiatric and somatic comorbidities; ii) a recurrence or chronic profile; and iii) a negative impact on daily functions, thereby leading to a profound impairment of quality of life. Despite significant advances in pharmacological and psychological therapies over the last decades, unsuccessful responses to standard treatment strategies are classically observed in approximately 20–30% of cases. Therefore, there is a significant need for improving the pathophysiological knowledge through a better identification of environmental, clinical, psychological, genetic, anatomical, and biological determinants, specifically implied in the development, the phenotypic expression, and the relapsing course and/or contributing to the therapeutic failure in major depression and OCD. We are convinced that this research approach is particularly relevant providing critical support for the promotion of innovative treatment alternatives potentially useful for the management of resistant forms of major depression and OCD.

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