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Photon-Counting Image Sensors

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783038423751 9783038423744 Year: Pages: XII, 366 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-19 08:18:39
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Photon-counting image sensors represent a possible paradigm shift in solid-state image sensors. In these devices, photons are individually sensed and counted. To count photons, the devices must have high quantum efficiency, deep sub-electron read noise and the ability to read-out in digital form at high speed. This all-invited content from the top image sensor researchers around the world, reviews the state of the art of photon-counting image sensors in a variety of configurations, including CMOS image sensors and devices using avalanche multiplication, and for visible photons as well as higher energy photons such as ultraviolet and x-rays. New methods of creating image information from photon-counting image sensors is also described. This new emerging technology will have applications in low-light scientific imaging for aerospace and defense, and in the life sciences. It may also have applications in cryptography, communications, security cameras, 3D imaging and photography.

Entropy in Image Analysis

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ISBN: 9783039210923 9783039210930 Year: Pages: 456 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-093-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Image analysis is a fundamental task for extracting information from images acquired across a range of different devices. Since reliable quantitative results are requested, image analysis requires highly sophisticated numerical and analytical methods—particularly for applications in medicine, security, and remote sensing, where the results of the processing may consist of vitally important data. The contributions to this book provide a good overview of the most important demands and solutions concerning this research area. In particular, the reader will find image analysis applied for feature extraction, encryption and decryption of data, color segmentation, and in the support new technologies. In all the contributions, entropy plays a pivotal role.

Keywords

image retrieval --- multi-feature fusion --- entropy --- relevance feedback --- chaotic system --- image encryption --- permutation-diffusion --- SHA-256 hash value --- dynamic index --- entropy --- keyframes --- Shannon’s entropy --- sign languages --- video summarization --- video skimming --- image encryption --- multiple-image encryption --- two-dimensional chaotic economic map --- security analysis --- image encryption --- chaotic cryptography --- cryptanalysis --- chosen-plaintext attack --- image information entropy --- blind image quality assessment (BIQA) --- information entropy, natural scene statistics (NSS) --- Weibull statistics --- discrete cosine transform (DCT) --- ultrasound --- hepatic steatosis --- Shannon entropy --- fatty liver --- metabolic syndrome --- multi-exposure image fusion --- texture information entropy --- adaptive selection --- patch structure decomposition --- image encryption --- time-delay --- random insertion --- information entropy --- chaotic map --- uncertainty assessment --- deep neural network --- random forest --- Shannon entropy --- positron emission tomography --- reconstruction --- field of experts --- additive manufacturing --- 3D prints --- 3D scanning --- image entropy --- depth maps --- surface quality assessment --- machine vision --- image analysis --- Arimoto entropy --- free-form deformations --- normalized divergence measure --- gradient distributions --- nonextensive entropy --- non-rigid registration --- pavement --- macrotexture --- 3-D digital imaging --- entropy --- decay trend --- discrete entropy --- infrared images --- low contrast --- multiscale top-hat transform --- image encryption --- DNA encoding --- chaotic cryptography --- cryptanalysis --- image privacy --- computer aided diagnostics --- colonoscopy --- Rényi entropies --- structural entropy --- spatial filling factor --- binary image --- Cantor set --- Hénon map --- Minkowski island --- prime-indexed primes --- Ramanujan primes --- Kapur’s entropy --- color image segmentation --- whale optimization algorithm --- differential evolution --- hybrid algorithm --- Otsu method --- image encryption --- dynamic filtering --- DNA computing --- 3D Latin cube --- permutation --- diffusion --- fuzzy entropy --- electromagnetic field optimization --- chaotic strategy --- color image segmentation --- multilevel thresholding --- contrast enhancement --- sigmoid --- Tsallis statistics --- q-exponential --- q-sigmoid --- q-Gaussian --- ultra-sound images --- person re-identification --- image analysis --- hash layer --- quantization loss --- Hamming distance --- cross-entropy loss --- image entropy --- Shannon entropy --- generalized entropies --- image processing --- image segmentation --- medical imaging --- remote sensing --- security

Symmetry in Vision

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038424963 9783038424970 Year: Pages: X, 198 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-02 11:54:07
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Symmetry has a central role in the study of vision. The concept of symmetry has an ancient origin in considerations of visual appearance; in modern times, abstracted and formalized into Group Theory, it has found spectacular applications, far beyond the visible; but its importance for vision persists in many ways including:• As a non-accidental feature of an image that cues affordances, 3D structure or the semantic categories of object present.• As a redundant aspect of an image which many be exploited for simplicity and compactness of encoding.• As a salient feature that draws attention, and evokes distinctive brain responses.• As a constraint on priors on the distribution of structures to be found in the natural world.• As an aesthetic principle.• As a design principle for vision systems.• The original idea for a Special Issue came from a symposium at the European Conference in Visual Perception, in 2015, on the topic of brain responses to visual symmetry, but we have now extended the scope. This Special Issue is devoted to provide a shared place for cutting edge studies on how and why symmetry is processed and exploited by biological and artificial visual systems.

Advanced Nanoindentation in Materials

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ISBN: 9783038427490 9783038427506 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-750-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-16 13:26:33
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This Special Issue "Advanced Nanoindentation in Materials" contains some of the latest developments in the field of small-scale contact mechanics for a wide range of materials and biological cells. The featured manuscript revealed a new ultra-high strain rate nanoindentation method that will enable new scientific understanding of time-dependent material properties. The book also presents unique material properties of super alloys and other structural materials characterized by indentation methods. In addition to engineering materials, deformation behaviors of live cancer cells on sharp pillar structures were discussed in this book with the hope to stimulate interest in the mechanical contact behaviors of biological cells.

Image Processing Using FPGAs

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ISBN: 9783038979180 9783038979197 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-919-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This book presents a selection of papers representing current research on using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for realising image processing algorithms. These papers are reprints of papers selected for a Special Issue of the Journal of Imaging on image processing using FPGAs. A diverse range of topics is covered, including parallel soft processors, memory management, image filters, segmentation, clustering, image analysis, and image compression. Applications include traffic sign recognition for autonomous driving, cell detection for histopathology, and video compression. Collectively, they represent the current state-of-the-art on image processing using FPGAs.

Advances in Digital Image Correlation (DIC)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039285143 / 9783039285150 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-515-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Digital image correlation (DIC) has become the most popular full field measurement technique in experimental mechanics. It is a versatile and inexpensive measurement method that provides a large amount of experimental data. Because DIC takes advantage of a huge variety of image modalities, the technique allows covering a wide range of space and time scales. Stereo extends the scope of DIC to non-planar cases, which are more representative of industrial use cases. With the development of tomography, digital volume correlation now provides access to volumetric data, enabling the study of the inner behavior of materials and structures.However, the use of DIC data to quantitatively validate models or accurately identify a set of constitutive parameters remains challenging. One of the reasons lies in the compromises between measurement resolution and spatial resolution. Second, the question of the boundary conditions is still open. Another reason is that the measured displacements are not directly comparable with usual simulations. Finally, the use of full field data leads to new computational challenges.

Keywords

super pressure balloon --- stress concentration --- strain --- non-contact measurement --- digital image correlation --- large deformation --- digital image correlation --- multi-perspective --- single camera --- cross dichroic prism --- earthquake rupture --- fault geometry --- spatiotemporal evolution --- strain gage --- spatial sampling rate --- rupture speed --- slip velocity --- high-speed camera --- experimental-numerical method --- digital image correlation --- finite element method --- static analysis --- arch structures --- fracture process zone --- digital image correlation technique --- acoustic emission technique --- stress intensity factor --- 3D deformation --- digital volume correlation --- optical coherence elastography --- virtual fields method --- layered material --- interior 3D deformation --- digital volumetric speckle photography --- X-ray microtomography --- digital volume correlation --- red sandstone --- woven composite beam --- digital image correlation --- dynamic interfacial rupture --- traction continuity across interfaces --- non-contact video gauge --- measurement --- stress-strain relationship --- uniaxial tensile test --- elevated temperature --- DIC --- initial condition --- image registration --- strain measurement --- copper plate --- underwater impulsive loading --- non-liner dynamic deformation --- 3D digital image correlation --- image correlation --- gradient correlation functions --- laser speckles --- image cross-correlation --- monitoring --- geosciences --- automated systems --- machine learning --- image classification --- image shadowing --- characterization of composite materials --- interlaminar tensile strength --- digital image correlation --- inverse method --- finite element model updating --- Digital image correlation (DIC) --- composite structures --- structural testing --- experimental mechanics --- composite materials --- automated composite manufacturing --- composite inspection --- automated fiber placement (AFP) --- DIC --- traceable calibration --- accuracy --- error --- n/a

Phase-Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging

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ISBN: 9783038972846 9783038972853 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-285-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-08 11:33:34
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The intent of this Special Issue is to provide a framework with which scientists in several different disciplines, related to phase-contrast and dark-field imaging, can illustrate their ideas and results. The articles are reviews or very recent scientific reports; they address newcomers in the field, as well as experts and professors in fields of X-ray physics, electron, and phase-contrast X-ray imaging.

Intelligent Imaging and Analysis

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039219209 9783039219216 Year: Pages: 492 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-921-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Imaging and analysis are widely involved in various research fields, including biomedical applications, medical imaging and diagnosis, computer vision, autonomous driving, and robot controls. Imaging and analysis are now facing big changes regarding intelligence, due to the breakthroughs of artificial intelligence techniques, including deep learning. Many difficulties in image generation, reconstruction, de-noising skills, artifact removal, segmentation, detection, and control tasks are being overcome with the help of advanced artificial intelligence approaches. This Special Issue focuses on the latest developments of learning-based intelligent imaging techniques and subsequent analyses, which include photographic imaging, medical imaging, detection, segmentation, medical diagnosis, computer vision, and vision-based robot control. These latest technological developments will be shared through this Special Issue for the various researchers who are involved with imaging itself, or are using image data and analysis for their own specific purposes.

Keywords

image inspection --- non-referential method --- feature extraction --- fault pattern learning --- weighted kernel density estimation (WKDE) --- rail surface defect --- UAV image --- defect detection --- gray stretch maximum entropy --- image enhancement --- defect segmentation --- semi-automatic segmentation --- MR spine image --- vertebral body --- graph-based segmentation --- correlation --- surface defect of steel sheet --- image segmentation --- saliency detection --- low-rank and sparse decomposition --- intervertebral disc --- segmentation --- convolutional neural network --- fine grain segmentation --- U-net --- deep learning --- magnetic resonance image --- lumbar spine --- image adjustment --- colorfulness --- contrast --- sharpness --- high dynamic range --- local registration --- iterative closest points --- multimodal medical image registration --- machine vision --- point cloud registration --- greedy projection triangulation --- local correlation --- three-dimensional imaging --- optimization arrangement --- cavitation bubble --- water hydraulic valve --- defect inspection --- image processing --- feature extraction --- classification methods --- medical image registration --- image alignment in medical images --- misalignment correction in MRI --- midsagittal plane extraction --- symmetry detection --- PCA --- conformal mapping --- mesh parameterization --- mesh partitioning --- pixel extraction --- texture mapping --- image analysis --- image retrieval --- spatial information --- image classification --- computer vision --- image restoration --- motion deburring --- image denoising --- sparse feedback --- Image processing --- segmentation --- spline --- grey level co-occurrence matrix --- gradient detection --- threshold selection --- OpenCV --- machine learning --- transfer learning --- Inception-v3 --- geological structure images --- convolutional neural networks --- image segmentation --- active contour model --- level set --- signed pressure force function --- image segmentation --- deep learning --- synthetic aperture radar (SAR) --- oil slicks --- segnet --- pectus excavatum --- nuss procedure --- patient-specific nuss bar --- minimally invasive surgery --- computerized numerical control bending machine --- computer-aided design --- computer-aided manufacturing --- statistical body shape model --- self-intersection penalty term --- 3D pose estimation --- 3D semantic mapping --- incrementally probabilistic fusion --- CRF regularization --- road scenes --- deep learning --- medical image classification --- additional learning --- CT image --- automatic training --- GoogLeNet --- intelligent evaluation --- automated cover tests --- deviation of strabismus --- pupil localization --- shape from focus --- wear measurement --- sprocket teeth --- normal distribution operator image filtering --- adaptive evaluation window --- reverse engineering --- human parsing --- depth-estimation --- computational efficiency --- capacity optimization --- underwater visual localization method --- line segment features --- PL-SLAM --- face sketch synthesis --- face sketch recognition --- joint training model --- data imbalance --- Contrast Tomography (CT) --- pre-training strategy --- segmentation --- super-resolution --- dual-channel --- residual block --- convolutional kernel parameter --- long-term and short-term memory blocks --- n/a

Intelligent Sensing Technologies for Nondestructive Evaluation

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038428770 9783038428787 Year: Pages: VIII, 272 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-08 13:27:51
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Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) sensing has progressed significantly in the past few years. In particular, smart sensors play an increasingly important role in structural damage detection. There is growing progress in the performance of strategic sensors, such as piezoelectric sensors, as well as noncontact sensors, such as air-coupled transducers, magnetic flux leakage sensors and pulsed laser ultrasonic propagation applications. The most progress has been made in the development of application software for all technologies. We are now able to enhance damage resolutions and then focus on damage visualization in many applications.This Special Issue highlights advances in the development, testing, and use of damage visualization tools for smart sensor-based nondestructive evaluations. Topics covered include: • New developments in smart sensing-based nondestructive evaluations• Magnetic flux leakage sensors• Laser scanning-based ultrasonic propagation sensors• Piezoelectric sensors• Air-coupled transducers• Damage detection and visualization

Image Processing in Agriculture and Forestry

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038970972 9783038970989 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-098-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mechanical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-27 09:15:10
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Image processing in agriculture and forestry represents a challenge towards the automation of tasks for better performances. Agronomists, computer and robotics engineers, and agricultural machinery industry manufacturers now have at their disposal a book containing a collection of methods, procedures, designs, and descriptions at the technological forefront, which serves as an important support and aid for the implementation and development of their own ideas.The book describes: (1) Applications (canopy on trees, aboveground biomass, phenotyping, chlorophyll, leaf area index, water and nutrient content, land cover change, soil properties, and secure autonomous navigation); (2) Imaging devices onboard robots, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and satellites operating at different spectral ranges (visible, infrared, hyper-multispectral bands, and radar), as well as guidelines for selecting machine vision systems in outdoor environments; and (3) (Specific computer vision methods (generic and convolutional neural networks, machine learning, specific segmentation approaches, vegetation indices, and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction).

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