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Evidence in Civil Law - Estonia

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Book Series: Law & Society ISBN: 9789616842396 Year: Pages: 69 DOI: 10.4335/978-961-6842-39-6 Language: English
Publisher: Institute for Local Self-Government and Public Procurement Maribor
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-06 18:15:30
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Since Estonia regained its independence on 20 August 1991 Estonian civil procedure has been gradually developed from the civil procedure of Estonian SSR to the modern civil procedure rules in force today. The current code of civil procedure was adopted on 20 April 2005 and came into force in 1 January 2006. Since coming into force several changes have been made to the current code with significant changes coming into force on 1 January 2009. Estonian civil procedure is mainly based on the adversarial principle, except for some specific cases and proceedings on petition where the inquisitorial principle is used. Deriving from this the parties are in most cases free to decide on what evidence to submit and whether to submit evidence at all. While the court may ask the parties to submit evidence, they are not required to do so. The situation is different in cases based on the inquisitorial principle. Estonian civil procedure does not impose many restrictions as to the kind of evidence that can be submitted. Virtually anything that can be reproduced in some way may be submitted as documentary evidence and any person who has knowledge about the facts of the case may be heard as a witness. Even the parties may be heard under oath. The Estonian Code of Civil Procedure does not set out many rules on how to evaluate the evidence submitted. The basic rule is that the court has to assess the evidence impartially and as a whole and not give any preference to any particular piece of evidence.

Evidence in Civil Law - Croatia

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Book Series: Law & Society ISBN: 9789616842402 Year: Pages: 55 DOI: 10.4335/978-961-6842-40-2 Language: English
Publisher: Institute for Local Self-Government and Public Procurement Maribor
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-09 10:52:17
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This book portrays evidence and gathering of evidence under the current Croatian regulation relating to evidence and in practice. In this context, the author first analyses the fundamental principles of Croatian civil procedure and law of evidence. Then, the general principles of evidence and gathering of evidence are discussed, as well as the general rule on the burden of proof. The question of gathering of evidence through modern technology (videoconferencing, etc.) in the Croatian law and practice is also discussed. Separate parts of this book contain the analysis of means of proof regulated by the Croatian Civil Procedure Act: inspection of object ('view'), documents, witness testimony, expert testimony, and party testimony. The rules on costs caused by gathering of evidence, including the costs for translation are analysed, as well as the rules on language. The concepts of illegally obtained evidence and illegal evidence in the Croatian law and practice are discussed. This volume contains the report about the Council Regulation (EC) No 1206/2001 and the multilateral and bilateral legal assistance treaties to which Croatia is a party. There are several appendices to this book: a table of authorities according to the Regulation No 1206/2001, and relevant sources of Croatian civil procedure, table of case law on evidence, table portraying a ordinary/common civil procedure timeline, table referring to legal interpretation in the Croatian legal system, and comparative tables focusing on functional differences between national regulation, bilateral legal assistance treaties, multilateral treaties, and Council Regulation (EC) No 1206/2001 on taking of evidence by hearing of witnesses. This book is a result of the Dimensions of Evidence in European Civil Procedure research project commissioned by European Commission, Directorate-General Justice.

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