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Character, Responsibility, and Well-Being: Influences on Mental Health and Constructive Behavior Patterns

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198221 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-822-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Character can be defined as self-aware knowledge that helps the individual to set goals, values and ethical principles (Cloninger, 2004). This meta-cognitive dimension of human personality involves ‘Theory of Mind’, and is positively related to measures of well-being, mental health, and constructive behavior patterns. Research from at least three different fields, cultural (Shweder, Much, Mahapatra & Park, 1997), personality (Cloninger, 2004), and social psychology (Abele & Wojcizke, 2007) suggest that character can be organized along three broad principles: agency, which is related to the autonomy and the fulfillment and enhancement of the self; communion, which is related to engagement in the protection and relations to others such as families, companies or nations; and spirituality, which is related to the human ability to transcend the self and find and interconnection with all life and appreciation of the whole world around us (Haidt, 2006; Cloninger, 2013). Using the Temperament and Character Inventory (Cloninger, Svrakic & Przybeck, 1993) researchers have found that agentic (i.e., Self-directedness) and communal (i.e., Cooperativeness) values are associated to high levels of happiness, psychological well-being, and less violent behavior. Moreover, low Self-directedness and Cooperativeness is recurrent among individuals with all types of mental health problems, such as, depression, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and et cetera. Spirituality, in coherence with agency and communion, guides the individual to seek self-realization in harmony with others and nature in the changing world (Cloninger, 2013). Seeing character as self-awareness of the self in three dimensions has also been associated to human responsibility and empowerment. This Research Topic will focus on all article types that put forward findings regarding:•Character as a protective factor against mental illness•Character’s association to conduct disorders and violent behavior•Character as a promoter of happiness, life satisfaction, and well-being•The etiology of character•Longitudinal studies on character•Agency, communion, and spirituality as broad dimensions for the conceptualization of positive measures of mental health•Innovative methods to measure or conceptualize character•Non-linear effects of character on mental health•Character as a measure/conceptualization of responsibility•Character in school and work place settings•Character in relation to empowerment.

Better Together: A Joined-Up Psychological Approach to Health, Well-Being, and Rehabilitation

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199419 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-941-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Health and well-being is best understood in terms of a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors. But how ‘social’ is the biopsychosocial model when applied to mental health and rehabilitation? Psychology has traditionally viewed health as being determined by individual behavior. An integrative psychological approach is required to draw understanding from sociology, social psychology, and politics to consider how wider systemic, structural, and contextual factors impact on health behavior and outcomes. This e-book is dedicated to examining collective and community approaches to well-being and rehabilitation. In particular, the articles contained within this e-book are seeking to understand how social integration, social groups, social identity, and social capital influence health, well-being, and rehabilitation outcomes.

From Organizational Welfare to Business Success: Higher Performance in Healthy Organizational Environments

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453153 Year: Pages: 229 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-315-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-22 11:28:10
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This e-book provides insight into the link between employee health and productivity/performance, with a focus on how individuals, groups, or organizations can intervene in this relationship to improve both well-being and performance-related outcomes. Given the continuous changes that organizations and employees face, such as the aging workforce and continued economic turbulence, it is not surprising that studies are increasingly finding that employee health is related to job conditions. The papers in this e-book emphasize that organizations make a critical difference when it comes to employees' health and well-being. In turn, healthy employees help their organizations to flourish. Such findings are in line with the recent emphasis by both the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the United Nations (UN) on the importance of work for individual well-being and the importance of individual well-being for productive and sustainable economic growth (see e.g., ILO, 1985; World Health Organisation, 2007; UN, 2015). Overall, the papers report findings from a cumulative sample of nearly 19,000 workers and perspectives from 68 authors. They suggest that performance cannot be successfully achieved at the cost of health and well-being, and provide various perspectives and tools to guide future research and practice.

Emotional Intelligence and Cognitive Abilities

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199228 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-922-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Nowadays, not only psychologists are interested in the study of Emotional Intelligence (EI). Teachers, educator, managers, employers, and people, in general, pay attention to EI. For example, teachers would like to know how EI could affect student’s academic results, and managers are concerned about how EI influences their employees’ performance. The concept of EI has been widely used in recent years to the extent that people start to applying it in daily life. EI is broadly defined as the capacity to process and use emotional information. More specifically, according to Mayer and Salovey, EI is the ability to: “1) accurate perception, appraise, and expression of emotion; 2) access and/or generation of feelings when they facilitate thought; 3) understand emotions and emotional knowledge; and 4) regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth” (Mayer and Salovey 1997, p. 10). When new information arises into one specific area of knowledge, the work of the scientists is to investigate the relation between this new information and other established concepts. In this sense, EI could be considered as a new framework to explain human behaviour. As a young concept in Psychology, EI could be used to elucidate the performance in the activities of everyday life. Over the past two decades, studies of EI have tried to delimitate how EI is linked to other competences. A vast number of studies have reported a relation between EI and a large list of competences such as academic and work success, life satisfaction, attendee to emotions, assertiveness, emotional expression, emotional-based decision making, impulsive control, stress management, among others. Moreover, recent researches have shown that EI plays an important role in the prediction of behaviour besides personality and cognitive factors.However, it is not until quite recently, that studies on EI have considered the importance of individual differences in EI and their interaction with cognitive abilities.The general issue of this Research Topic was to expose the role of individual differences on EI in the development of a large number of competencies that support a more efficient performance in people’s everyday life. The present Research Topic provide an extensive review that may give light to the better understanding of how individual differences in EI affect human behaviour. We have considered studies that analyse: 1) how EI contributes to emotional, cognitive and social process beyond the well-known contribution of IQ and personality traits, as well as the brain system that supports the EI; 2) how EI contributes to relationships among emotions and health and well-being, 3) the roles of EI during early development and the evaluation in different populations, 4) how implicit beliefs about emotions and EI influence emotional abilities.

Psychosocial Advances in Neuro-Oncology

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197828 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-782-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Neuro-oncology is a rapidly growing field concerned with scientific developments and clinical applications related to neuroscience, neuropsychology, cancer and oncology. Neuro-oncological disorders include cancers that directly affect the central nervous system (CNS), such as brain tumours and brain metastases, and non-CNS cancers with treatments that produce neurocognitive impairment. To date, the biological mechanisms and neuropsychological effects of brain tumour and cancer have been the dominant focus in neuro-oncology literature. In terms of psychosocial aspects of care, people’s understanding of their diagnosis and symptoms and how they cope with their illness has a major influence on their emotional well-being and quality of life.The development and evaluation of psychological and supportive care interventions for people with brain tumour is an area of emerging research and of high interest to health professionals working in the field. This Research Topic aims to enhance understanding of the psychological and social consequences of brain tumour and other cancers impacting neurocognitive function. It also aims to showcase new developments in assessment and psychosocial intervention approaches.

Work-Life Balance: Essential or Ephemeral?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452545 Year: Pages: 75 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-254-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Burn-out and suicide rates among physicians and scientists in academic medicine are at an all-time high and jeopardize the future of our entire profession. In the last 4 years alone, burn-out rates among physicians have increased by 25%. In a recent 2017 Medscape publication, burn-out rates in Critical Care physicians ranked in 9th place and Pediatricians ranked 13th among 27 subspecialties. Astonishingly, over 50% of the participants reported burn-out symptoms, with clear race and gender disparities. While men generally report higher burn-out rates than women, it is important to emphasize that response rates from women in these surveys were notoriously low and may not represent the complete picture. These numbers are even more dismal for tenured academic faculty at research-extensive universities. In this group, emotional exhaustion (i.e. high burn-out) is reported at 35% with a clear association with age and lower burn-out levels in the older tenured faculty. While no gender or racial/ethnic differences were found in this particular group, higher levels of burn-out were identified in individuals with financial responsibilities beyond a spouse and child. While it is comforting to note the increasing public interest and research activities in this field, successful approaches to ameliorate the burden and consequences of physician burn-out are still inadequately developed. Academic centers increasingly offer some type of work-life balance program to their employees but, unfortunately, these programs are frequently adopted from corporate business models and remain largely ineffective in the academic environment. It should be evident to most administrators that the stressors of academic clinicians and scientists substantially differ from those of corporate employees. Based on these observations and over 75 years of combined experience in academic medicine amongst the three editors of this Research Topic, we collected 26 manuscripts from 22 authors at different career stages and different genders, ethnicities, marital status and subspecialties to identify and stratify common and specific stressors and therapeutic approaches to ameliorate burn-out and achieve work-life balance in academic medicine. We are confident that each reader will identify with at least one, if not several, of the authors’ opinions, experiences and approaches to attain greater work-life balance and thereby avoid the consequences of burn-out in modern academic medicine.

Keywords

work-life balance --- stress --- Suicide --- academic --- physician --- Career --- Family --- lifestyle --- Health --- Well-being

Mental Health Challenges in Elite Sport: Balancing Risk with Reward

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453832 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-383-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Elite sport typically provides obvious rewards in terms of recognition, finance and acclaim for athletic performance. Increasingly, we are becoming aware of the risks that elite athletes, their entourage, including families, sport-science support team and coaches are exposed to. Twelve original articles, seven commentaries and a corrigendum, are structured in a five chapter format. Chapter 1, comprising the Editorial is titled “An Overview of Mental Health in Elite Sport: Changing the Play Book” to reflect the advocacy role of this article. Chapter 2 (“Finding the Sweet Spot”) amplifies the voice of key stakeholders across three qualitative studies with three additional commentaries. Quantitative evidence is presented in Chapter 3 which has the sub-title the “State of Play.” Chapter 4, entitled the “Field of Play” includes three original publications which present contrasting conceptual approaches to guide researchers in hypothesis generation, formulation and implementation science. Finally, in Chapter 5, “Seeing the Ball Early” prospective perspectives are provided in three publications reinforced by two commentaries. The future thinking ideas includes the use of virtual reality training, a broadening of the concept of mental health literacy, tackling stigma and focusing on the potential positive effect of the natural environment on well-being and recovery.To date the research topic has generated widespread in the field. For example, several articles have generated an Altmetric score above 40 with one publication meriting an Altmetric score of 102. We envisage that the impact of this e-book will not simply be measured in citations, views, downloads nor social media impact, but in the discourse that emerges from this collection of contributions from a combined total of 53 authors from across three continents. It is our hope that this e-book, providing a snapshot of global challenges for elite athletes mental health and well-being, becomes a touchstone for researchers and practitioners in the field.

Advances in Research on Age in the Workplace and Retirement

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453931 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-393-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Shifts in the age composition of the workforce coupled with dynamic definitions of retirement represent important issues that influence work processes and, more generally, the experience of working across one’s career. For example, redefinitions of careers and the changing nature of working have contributed to the emergence of distinct forms and patterns of work experiences across the prototypical work lifespan. Likewise, older individuals are increasingly delaying retirement in favor of longer-term labor force participation. The study of age and work, and work and retirement by industrial, work, and organizational (IWO) psychologists and scholars of human resources management and organizational behavior (HR/OB) has recently proliferated in part as a result of such trends, along with the recognition that age-related processes are important indicators of various proximal (e.g., job attitudes, work behaviors, work motives, and wellbeing) and distal outcomes (e.g., sustainable employability, climates for aging, and firm performance) at various levels of abstraction in modern work environments.Recent theoretical advances have suggested that age, along with individual psychological factors and various contextual influences can jointly influence work outcomes that contribute to long-term employment success, including work performance, job attitudes, work orientations, and motivations. Similar theoretical developments concerning retirement have postulated individual and contextual elements that drive success in the transition from career and work roles to non-work and leisure as well as post-retirement bridge employment roles.In this Research Topic, we aim to curate a collection of papers that are representative of current trends and advances in thinking about and investigating the role of age in workplace processes and the changing nature of retirement. Our hope is to showcase various contemporary ideas and rigorous empirical studies as a means to inform broader thinking and to support enhanced theorizing and organizational practice regarding these processes.

Multiple Identities Management

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454297 Year: Pages: 251 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-429-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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In this ebook, a collection of 18 papers presents empirical research, as well as novel theoretical considerations, on how multiple identities are being managed by the individuals holding them. The papers draw on theories from social psychology in the context of the social identity approach. The first chapter presents eight papers on different types of multiple identity configurations in a variety of contexts, and the costs and benefits of these configurations for the individual (e.g., well-being). The second chapter gives insights on how conflict between multiple identities is managed by individuals. And the final chapter analyses how multiple identities impact intragroup and intergroup relations.

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